World Health Organization (WHO), Key Facts on HIV/AIDS. 2019. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hiv-aids.
Galvan FH, Bing EG, Fleishman JA, London AS, Caetano R, Burnam MA, et al. The prevalence of alcohol consumption and heavy drinking among people with HIV in the United States: results from the HIV cost and services utilization study. J Stud Alcohol. 2002;63(2):179–86.
World Health Organazation (WHO), Substance abuse (2014), https://www.who.int/topics/substance_abuse/en/
Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Alcohol related disorders in Kaplan & Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry (10th ed.)390–407. Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2007.
Probst C, Parry CDH, Rehm J. HIV/AIDS mortality attributable to alcohol use in South Africa: a comparative risk assessment by socioeconomic status. BMJ Open. 2018;8:e017955.
Global Burden of Disease. Global Burden of Disease 2010: Understanding Disease, Injury, and Risk. Glob Burd Dis. 2012;2012:380.
Chander G, Lau BMR. Hazardous alcohol use: a risk factor for nonadherence and lack of suppression in HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;43:411–7.
Segni MT, Teshome G, Demissie HF. AIDS & Clinical Research Substance use and associated factors among retro viral infected ( RVI ) patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART ) at Assela teaching hospital. J AIDS Clin Res. 2017;8(6):6–10.
Hahn JA, Bwana MB, Javors MA, Martin JN, Emenyonu NI, Bangsberg DR. Biomarker testing to estimate under-reported heavy alcohol consumption by persons with HIV initiating ART in Uganda. AIDS Behav. 2010;14(6):1265–8.
Park LS, Hernandez-Ramirez RU, Silverberg MJ, Crothers K, Dubrow R. Prevalence of non-HIV cancer risk factors in persons living with HIV/AIDS: a meta-analysis. AIDS. 2016;30(2):273–91.
Lefevre F, O’Leary B, Moran M, Mossar M, Yarnold PR, Martin GJ, et al. Alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients. J Gen Intern Med. 1995;10:458–60.
Samet JH, Phillips SJ, Horton NJ, Traphagen ETFK. Detecting alcohol problems in HIV-infected patients: use of the CAGE questionnaire. AIDS Res Hum Retrovir. 2004;20:151–5.
Goar SG, Audu MD, Agbir MT, Dochalson E, Prevalence and Socio-demographic correlates of alcohol use disorders among HIV patients, African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, (2011)10(1).
Orwat J, Saitz R, Tompkins CP, Cheng DM, Dentato MP, Samet JH. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems. J Subst Abus Treat. 2011;41(3):233–42.
Williams EC, Hahn JA, Saitz R, Bryant K, Lira MC, Samet JH. Alcohol use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: current knowledge, implications, and future directions. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2016;40(10):2056–72.
Amoakwa K, Martinson NA, Moulton LH, Barnes GL, Msandiwa R, Chaisson RE. Risk factors for developing active tuberculosis after the treatment of latent tuberculosis in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015;2:ofu120.
Bonacini M. Alcohol use among patients with HIV infection. Ann Hepatol. 2011;10(4):502–7.
Benhamou Y, Bochet M, Di Martino V, Charlotte F, Azria F, Coutellier A, et al. Liver fibrosis progression in human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus coinfected patients. Multivirc Gr Hepatol. 1999;30:1054–8.
Parsons JT, Vicioso K, Kutnick A, Punzalan JC, Halkitis PNVM. Alcohol use and stigmatized sexual practices of HIV seropositive gay and bisexual men. Addict Behav. 2004;29:1045–51.
Suwa G. Goar, Moses D. Audu Mt A & Edward D, Suwa G. Goar, Moses D. Audu, Michael T. Agbir & Edward Dochalson. African J Drug Alcohol Stud. 2011;10(1).
Porges EC, Bryant VE, Woods AJ, et al. The effect of current alcohol consumption on cognitive impairment varies as a function of HIV status and age. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2015;39:268a.
Jia H, Uphold CR, Wu S, Chen GJ, Duncan PW. Predictors of changes in health-related quality of life among men with HIV infection in the HAART era. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2005;19(6):395–405.
Moak ZBAA. The association between perceived interpersonal social support and physical and mental health: results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J Public Heal (Oxf). 2010;32:191–201.
Reviews UoYCf, Dissemination. Systematic reviews: CRD's guidance for undertaking reviews in health care: University of York, Centre for Reviews & Dissemination; 2009.
Silverberg MJ, Leyden WA, Leibowitz A, Hare CB, Jang HJ, Sterling S, et al. Factors associated with hazardous alcohol use and motivation to reduce drinking among HIV primary care patients: Baseline findings from the Health & Motivation study. Addict Behav. 2018;84:110–7.
da Silva CM, Mendoza-Sassi RA, da Mota LD, Nader MM, de Martinez AM. Alcohol use disorders among people living with HIV/AIDS in southern Brazil: prevalence, risk factors and biological markers outcomes. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17(1):263.
Crane HM, McCaul ME, Chander G, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with hazardous alcohol use among persons living with HIV across the US in the current era of antiretroviral treatment. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(7):1914–25.
Nouaman MN, Vinikoor M, Seydi M, et al. High prevalence of binge drinking among people living with HIV in four African countries. J Int AIDS Soc. 2018;21(12):e25202.
Pokhrel KN, Pokhrel KG, Neupane SR, Sharma VD. Harmful alcohol drinking among HIV-positive people in Nepal: an overlooked threat to anti-retroviral therapy adherence and health-related quality of life. Glob Health Action. 2018;11(1):1441783.
Egbe CO, Dakum PS, Ekong E, Kohrt BA, Minto JG, Ticao CJ. Depression, suicidality, and alcohol use disorder among people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):542.
Rosemary WK. The prevalence of alcohol and substance use disorders among HIV infected youth aged between 15-25 years old at Mbagathi Hospital, Kenya (dissertation). http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/11295/94741/Kiunyu_Prevelance%20Of%20Alcohol%20&%20Substance%20Use%20Disorders%20Among%20Hiv%20Infected%20Youth%20Aged%20Between%201525%20Yrs%20Old%20At%20Mbagathi%20Hospital.pdf?sequence=3.
Kibera AW, Kuria MW, Kokonya DA. Alcohol Use Disorders Among HIV and AIDS Patients at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Comprehensive Care Centre, Nairobi, Kenya. International Journal of Research Studies in Medical and Health Sciences. 2017;2(7):21–30.
Mayston R, Patel V, Abas M, Korgaonkar P, Paranjape R, Rodrigues S, et al. Determinants of common mental disorder, alcohol use disorder and cognitive morbidity among people coming for HIV testing in Goa, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2015;20:397–406.
Belayneh Z, Mekuriaw B, Abebe Z, Alcohol use disorders and associated factors among adults attending art clinics in Gedeo Zone health centers, Southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study, Journal of Virology & Antiviral Research, 2018, Volume: 7.
de Oliveira LC, Dos Anjos MG, Macedo Mustafe R, Sebastiao BA. Alcohol consumption and associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients. Braz J Infect Dis. 2016;20(3):320–1.
Soboka M, Tesfaye M, Feyissa GT, Hanlon C. Alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people living with HIV who are attending services in south West Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:828.
Parsons JT, Starks TJ, Millar BM, Boonrai K, Marcotte D. Patterns of substance use among HIV-positive adults over 50: implications for treatment and medication adherence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;139:33–40.
Simon D, Michita R, Béria J, Tietzmann D, Stein A, Lunge V. Alcohol misuse and illicit drug use are associated with HCV/HIV co-infection. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142(12):2616–23.
Medley A, Seth P, Pathak S, Howard AA, DeLuca N, Matiko E, et al. Alcohol use and its association with HIV risk behaviors among a cohort of patients attending HIV clinical care in Tanzania, Kenya, and Namibia. AIDS Care. 2014;26(10):1288–97.
Scott-Sheldon LA, Carey KB, Carey MP, Cain D, Simbayi LC, Kalichman SC. Alcohol use disorder, contexts of alcohol use, and the risk of HIV transmission among south African male patrons of shebeens. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;140:198–204.
Jolley SE, Alkhafaf Q, Hough C, Welsh DA. Presence of an alcohol use disorder is associated with greater pneumonia severity in hospitalized HIV-infected patients. Lung. 2016;194(5):755–62.
Idrisov B, Lunze K, Cheng DM, Blokhina E, Gnatienko N, Quinn E, et al. Role of substance use in HIV care cascade outcomes among people who inject drugs in Russia. Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2017;12(1):30.
Bultum JA, Yigzaw N, Demeke W, Alemayehu M. Alcohol use disorder and associated factors among human immunodeficiency virus infected patients attending antiretroviral therapy clinic at Bishoftu general hospital, Oromiya region, Ethiopia. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(3):e0189312.
Wandera B, Tumwesigye NM, Nankabirwa JI, Kambugu AD, Parkes-Ratanshi R, Mafigiri DK, et al. Alcohol Consumption among HIV-Infected Persons in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Kampala Uganda: A Constellation of Harmful Behaviors. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0126236. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.
Farley J, Miller E, Zamani A, Tepper V, Morris C, Oyegunle M, et al. Screening for hazardous alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among HIV-infected patients in Nigeria: prevalence, predictors, and association with adherence. J Int Assoc Phys AIDS Care (Chicago, Ill : 2002). 2010;9(4):218–226.
Duko B, Toma A, Abraham Y. Alcohol use disorder and associated factors among individuals living with HIV in Hawassa City, Ethiopia: a facility based cross- sectional study. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2019;14:22.
Stang A. Critical evaluation of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for the assessment of the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analyses. Eur J Epidemiol. 2010;25(9):603–5.
Modesti PA, Reboldi G, Cappuccio FP, Agyemang C, Remuzzi G, Rapi S, et al. Panethnic differences in blood pressure in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0147601.
Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins J, Rothstein HR. A basic introduction to fixed-effect and random-effects models for meta-analysis. Res Synth Methods. 2010;1(2):97–111.
Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ: British Medical Journal. 2003;327(7414):557.
Sterne JAC, Gavaghan D, Egger M. Publication and related bias in meta-analysis: power of statistical tests and prevalence in the literature. J Clin Epidemiol. 2000;53(11):1119–29.
Reinert DF, Allen JP. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT): areview of recent research. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002;26(2):272.
Grant BF, Goldstein RB, Saha TD, Chou P, Jung J, Zhang H, et al. Epidemiology of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on alcohol and related conditions III. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(8):757–66.
Manthey J, Gual A, Jakubczyk A, Pieper L, Probst C, Struzzo P, et al. Alcohol use disorders in Europe: A comparison of general population and primary health care prevalence rates. J Subst Abus. 2016;21(5):478–84.
Louise Mewton, Maree Teesson, Tim Slade, Rachel Grove, The epidemiology of DSM-IV alcohol use disorders amongst young adults in the Australian population, Alcohol Alcohol, Volume 46, Issue 2, March-April 2011, Pages 185–191.
Plant M. The role of alcohol in women’s lives: a review of issues and responses. J Subst Abus. 2008;13(3):155–91.
Urban NB, Kegeles LS, Slifstein M, Xu X, Martinez D, Sakr E, Abi-Dargham A. Sex differences in striatal dopamine release in young adults after oral alcohol challenge: a positron emission tomography imaging study with [11C]raclopride. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;68(8):689–96.
Peralta R. ‘Alcohol allows you to not be yourself’: toward a structured understanding of alcohol use and gender difference among gay and lesbian, and heterosexual youth. The Journal of Drug Issues. 2008;38:373–400.
Mackenzie K, Differences between screening and diagnostic tests and case finding. 2017. https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/disease-causation-diagnostic/2c-diagnosis-screening/screening-diagnostic-case-finding.
Glantz MD, Medina-Mora ME, Petukhova M, Andrade LH, Anthony JC, de Girolamo G, et al. Alcohol abuse in developed and developing countries in the world mental health surveys: socially defined consequences or psychiatric disorder? Am J Addict. 2014;23:145–55.