Herbert K, Plugge E, Foster C, Doll H. Prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in prison populations worldwide: a systematic review. Lancet. 2012;379:1975–82 England: © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Munday D, Leaman J, O’Moore É, Plugge E. The prevalence of non-communicable disease in older people in prison: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing. 2019;48:204–12 England: © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Aldridge RW, Story A, Hwang SW, Nordentoft M, Luchenski SA, Hartwell G, et al. Morbidity and mortality in homeless individuals, prisoners, sex workers, and individuals with substance use disorders in high-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018;391(10117):241–50.
Fazel S, Yoon IA, Hayes AJ. Substance use disorders in prisoners: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis in recently incarcerated men and women. Addiction. 2017;112(10):1725–39.
Binswanger IA, Stern MF, Deyo RA, Heagerty PJ, Cheadle A, Elmore JG, et al. Release from prison–a high risk of death for former inmates. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(2):157–65.
Binswanger IA, Blatchford PJ, Mueller SR, Stern MF. Mortality after prison release: opioid overdose and other causes of death, risk factors, and time trends from 1999 to 2009. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(9):592–600.
Keen C, Kinner SA, Young JT, Snow K, Zhao B, Gan W, et al. Periods of altered risk for non-fatal drug overdose: a self-controlled case series. Lancet Public Health. 2021;6:e249–59 England: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
BC Corrections. Profile of BC Corrections. 2021.
Butler A, Nicholls T, Samji H, Fabian S, Lavergne MR. Prevalence of mental health needs, substance use, and co-occurring disorders among people admitted to prison. Psychiatric Serv. 2021.
Mattick RP, Breen C, Kimber J, Davoli M. Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadone maintenance for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(2):CD002207. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002207.pub4.
Mattick RP, Breen C, Kimber J, Davoli M. Methadone maintenance therapy versus no opioid replacement therapy for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;3:CD002209.
Pearce LA, Min JE, Piske M, Zhou H, Homayra F, Slaunwhite A, et al. Opioid agonist treatment and risk of mortality during opioid overdose public health emergency: population based retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2020;368:m772.
Kurz M, Dale LM, Min JE, Hongdilokkul N, Greiner L, Olley M, et al. Opioid agonist treatment uptake within provincial correctional facilities in British Columbia, Canada. Addiction. 2021;117(5):1353–62. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15737. Epub 2021 Nov 19.
College of Pharmacists of BC. Important notice regarding Suboxone® 2016. Available from: https://www.cpsbc.ca/important-notice-regarding-suboxone®.
College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia. Nurse practitioners can now prescribe controlled drugs and substances 2016. Available from: https://www.cpsbc.ca/for-physicians/college-connector/2016-V04-06/03.
Srivastava A, Kahan M, Nader M. Primary care management of opioid use disorders: abstinence, methadone, or buprenorphine-naloxone? Can Fam Physician. 2017;63(3):200–5.
BC Coroners Service. Illicit drug toxicity type of drug data data to December 31, 2021. 2022.
BC Coroners Service. Illicit Drug Toxicity Deaths in BC January 1, 2011 – December 31, 2021 2022. Available from: https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/birth-adoption-death-marriage-and-divorce/deaths/coroners-service/statistical/illicit-drug.pdf.
Ellis MS, Kasper ZA, Cicero TJ. Twin epidemics: the surging rise of methamphetamine use in chronic opioid users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018;193:14–20.
Fischer B, O’Keefe-Markman C, Lee AM, Daldegan-Bueno D. “Resurgent”, “twin” or “silent” epidemic? A select data overview and observations on increasing psycho-stimulant use and harms in North America. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2021;16(1):17.
Butler A, Nicholls T, Samji H, Fabian S, Lavergne R. Prevalence of mental health needs, substance use and co-occurring disorders among people admitted to prison. Submitted for publication. 2021.
DuPont RL. The opioid epidemic is an historic opportunity to improve both prevention and treatment. Brain Res Bull. 2018;138:112–4 United States: © 2017 Elsevier Inc.
Blanken P, van den Brink W, Hendriks VM, Huijsman IA, Klous MG, Rook EJ, et al. Heroin-assisted treatment in the Netherlands: history, findings, and international context. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;20(Suppl 2):S105–58.
Castells X, Cunill R, Perez-Mana C, Vidal X, Capella D. Psychostimulant drugs for cocaine dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;9:CD007380.
Perez-Mana C, Castells X, Torrens M, Capella D, Farre M. Efficacy of psychostimulant drugs for amphetamine abuse or dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;9:CD009695.
Minozzi S, Saulle R, De Crescenzo F, Amato L. Psychosocial interventions for psychostimulant misuse. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;9(9):CD011866. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011866.pub2.
Bartlett SR, Wong S, Yu A, Pearce M, MacIsaac J, Nouch S, et al. The impact of current opioid agonist therapy on hepatitis C virus treatment initiation among people who use drugs from the Direct-acting Antiviral (DAA) era: a population-based study. Clin Infect Dis. 2022;74(4):575–83.
Nuijten M, Blanken P, van de Wetering B, Nuijen B, van den Brink W, Hendriks VM. Sustained-release dexamfetamine in the treatment of chronic cocaine-dependent patients on heroin-assisted treatment: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2016;387(10034):2226–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-736(16)00205-1. Epub 2016 Mar 22.
Marsden J, Eastwood B, Bradbury C, Dale-Perera A, Farrell M, Hammond P, Knight J, Randhawa K, Wright C. National Drug Treatment Monitoring System Outcomes Study Group. Effectiveness of community treatments for
heroin and crack cocaine addiction in England: a prospective, in-treatment cohort study. Lancet. 2009;374(9697):1262–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61420-3. Epub 2009 Oct 1.
Franklyn AM, Eibl JK, Gauthier GJ, Pellegrini D, Lightfoot NE, Marsh DC. The impact of cocaine use in patients enrolled in opioid agonist therapy in Ontario. Canada Int J Drug Policy. 2017;48:1–8.
MacDougall L, Smolina K, Otterstatter M, Zhao B, Chong M, Godfrey D, et al. Development and characteristics of the provincial overdose cohort in British Columbia, Canada. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(1):e0210129.
British Columbia Ministry of Health DE. Discharge abstract database. In: British Columbia Ministry of Health P, V2, editor. 2018.
British Columbia Ministry of Health. PharmaNet Consolidation File (MSP Registration & Premium Billing),. British Columbia Ministry of Health, Data Extract; 2018.
BC Ministry of Health, Data Stewardship Committee. PharmaNet Data Extract. http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/health/conducting-health-research-evaluation/dataaccess-health-data-central2020.
Singer J, Willett J. Applied Longitudinal data analysis: modeling change and event occurrence: Oxford University Press; 2003.
Knol MJ, VanderWeele TJ, Groenwold RH, Klungel OH, Rovers MM, Grobbee DE. Estimating measures of interaction on an additive scale for preventive exposures. Eur J Epidemiol. 2011;26(6):433–8.
Armstrong RA. When to use the Bonferroni correction. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2014;34(5):502–8.
Sabe M, Zhao N, Kaiser S. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of cocaine-induced psychosis in cocaine users. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2021;109:110263.
Arunogiri S, Foulds JA, McKetin R, Lubman DI. A systematic review of risk factors for methamphetamine-associated psychosis. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2018;52(6):514–29.
Sukhera J, Knaak S, Ungar T, Rehman M. Dismantling structural stigma related to mental health and substance use: an educational framework. Acad Med. 2022;97(2):175–81.
Aronowitz S, Meisel ZF. Addressing stigma to provide quality care to people who use drugs. JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(2):e2146980.
Woodhead EL, Timko C, Han X, Cucciare MA. Stigma, treatment, and health among stimulant users: life stage as a moderator. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2019;60:96–104.
Deen H, Kershaw S, Newton N, Stapinski L, Birrell L, Debenham J, et al. Stigma, discrimination and crystal methamphetamine ('ice’): current attitudes in Australia. Int J Drug Policy. 2021;87:102982.
Mental Health Commission of Canada. Structural Stigma in health care contexts for people with mental health and substance use issues. 2017.
Bill 22: Mental Health Act Amendment [press release]. https://www.bclaws.gov.bc.ca/civix/document/id/bills/billsprevious/5th41st:gov22-1.
British Columbia Representative for Children and Youth. Detained: rights of children and youth under the mental health act. 2021.
Bagley SM, Hadland SE, Carney BL, Saitz R. Addressing stigma in medication treatment of adolescents with opioid use disorder. J Addict Med. 2017;11(6):415–6.
Pilarinos A, Bromberg DJ, Karamouzian M. Access to medications for opioid use disorder and associated factors among adolescents and young adults: a systematic review. JAMA Pediatr. 2022;176:304–11 United States.
Canêdo J, Sedgemore KO, Ebbert K, Anderson H, Dykeman R, Kincaid K, et al. Harm reduction calls to action from young people who use drugs on the streets of Vancouver and Lisbon. Harm Reduct J. 2022;19(1):43.
Heiwe S, Lönnquist I, Källmén H. Potential risk factors associated with risk for drop-out and relapse during and following withdrawal of opioid prescription medication. Eur J Pain. 2011;15(9):966–70.
BC Mental Health and Substance Use Services. Opioid agonist treatment nurse: ‘It’s all about removing barriers.’ 2020. Available from: http://www.bcmhsus.ca/about/news-stories/stories/oat-nurse-removing-barriers.
Vandergrift LA, Christopher PP. Do prisoners trust the healthcare system? Health Justice. 2021;9(1):15.
Marshall Z, Dechman MK, Minichiello A, Alcock L, Harris GE. Peering into the literature: a systematic review of the roles of people who inject drugs in harm reduction initiatives. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;151:1–14.
Needle RH, Burrows D, Friedman S, Latkin C. Effectiveness of community-based outreach in preventing HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users. Int J Drug Policy. 2005;16:45–7.
McLeod KE, Timler K, Korchinski M, Young P, Milkovich T, McBride C, et al. Supporting people leaving prisons during COVID-19: perspectives from peer health mentors. Int J Prison Health. 2021;ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print):206–16.
McLeod KE, Korchinski M, Young P, Milkovich T, Hemingway C, DeGroot M, et al. Supporting women leaving prison through peer health mentoring: a participatory health research study. CMAJ Open. 2020;8(1):E1–8.
Rance J, Treloar C. “Not just methadone Tracy”: transformations in service-user identity following the introduction of hepatitis C treatment into Australian opiate substitution settings. Addiction. 2014;109(3):452–9.
Brothers TD, Leaman M, Bonn M, Lower D, Atkinson J, Fraser J, Gillis A, Gniewek LH, Hayman H, Jorna P, Martell D, O'Donnell T, Bowerman H, Genge L. Evaluation of an emergency safe supply drugs and managed alcohol program in COVID-19 isolation hotel shelters for people experiencing homelessness. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2022;235:109440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109440. Epub 2022 Apr 7.
Palis H, Marchand K, Peachy G, Westfall J, Lock K, Macdonald S, Harrison S, Jun J, Bojanczyk-Shibata A, Marsh DC, Schechter MT, Oviedo-Joekes E. Exploring the effectiveness of dextroamphetamine for the treatment of stimulant use disorder: a qualitative study with injectable opioid agonist treatment patients. Subs Abuse Treat Prevent Policy. 2021;16(1):68. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13011-021-00399-2.
Palis H, MacDonald S, Jun J, Oviedo-Joekes E. Use of sustained release dextroamphetamine for the treatment of stimulant use disorder in the setting of injectable opioid agonist treatment in Canada: a case report. Harm Reduct J. 2021;18(1):57.
Tardelli VS, Bisaga A, Arcadepani FB, Gerra G, Levin FR, Fidalgo TM. Prescription psychostimulants for the treatment of stimulant use disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychopharmacology. 2020;237:2233–55 Germany.
Blanken P, Nuijten M, van den Brink W, Hendriks VM. Clinical effects beyond cocaine use of sustained-release dexamphetamine for the treatment of cocaine dependent patients with comorbid opioid dependence: secondary analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Addiction. 2020;115(5):917–23. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14874. Epub 2020 Jan 6.
Crime UNOoDa. Treatment of stimulant use disorders: current practices and promising perspectives. 2019.
Parent S, Papamihali K, Graham B, Buxton JA. Examining prevalence and correlates of smoking opioids in British Columbia: opioids are more often smoked than injected. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2021;16(1):79.
Bonn M, Touesnard N, Puliese M, Cheng B, Comeau E, Bodkin C, Brothers T, Wildeman S. Securing safe supply during COVID-19 and beyond: scoping review and knowledge mobilization. 2021.
Tyndall M. A safer drug supply: a pragmatic and ethical response to the overdose crisis. CMAJ. 2020;192:E986–7.
Nosyk B, Slaunwhite A, Urbanoski K, Hongdilokkul N, Palis H, Lock K, et al. Evaluation of risk mitigation measures for people with substance use disorders to address the dual public health crises of COVID-19 and overdose in British Columbia: a mixed-methods study protocol. BMC Health Serv. 2021.