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Table 2 Bivariate associations and logistic regression analyses of risk factors regarding indications of mental health problems. Odds ratios and confidence intervals are presented (n = 455)

From: Adolescents with substance use problems in outpatient treatment: a one-year prospective follow-up study focusing on mental health and gender differences

  Bivariate associations Model 1 Model 2
Full Model
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
1. Lack of occupation 1.18 (0.73–1.90) 0.90 (0.54–1.49) 1.03 (0.59–1.78)
2. Problems at school 1.42 (0.91–2.20) 1.16 (0.72–1.87) 1.13 (0.70–1.83)
3. Placement in foster care/residential home 1.68 (1.06–2.66)* 1.65 (1.01–2.68)* 1.73 (1.053–2.85)*
4. Problems in childhood environment 1.22 (0.83–1.78) 0.94 (0.61–1.45) 0.98 (0.63–1.52)
5. Early age at onset of substance use 1.01 (0.65–1.58) 0.90 (0.56–1.46) 0.81 (0.50–1.32)
6. Delinquent peers 0.93 (0.59–1.49) 0.87 (0.54–1.43) 0.99 (0.60–1.65)
7. Exposure to violence/abuse 1.36 (0.94–2.04) 1.16 (0.75–1.79) 1.13 (0.72–1.78)
8. Depression 2.51 (1.68–3.74)*** 2.51 (1.61–3.91)*** 2.55 (1.60–4.08)***
9. Violent behavior 1.27 (0.81–1.98) 0.95 (0.59–1.55) 0.95 (0.58–1.57)
10. Traumatic events 1.16 (0.79–1.72) 0.89 (0.57–1.38) 0.80 (0.51–1.27)
  1. *p < 0.05
  2. **p < 0.01
  3. ***padj < 0.05
  4. Note. Model 1 includes risk factors 1–10 and Model 2 risk factors 1–10 but also includes age, gender, and primary drug use frequency at intake