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Table 1 Factors associated with GSDOA awareness among survey respondents

From: Awareness and knowledge of the Good Samaritan Drug Overdose Act among people at risk of witnessing an overdose in British Columbia, Canada: a multi-methods cross sectional study

  GSDOA Awareness P-valuea
Aware (N = 239) n (row %) Unaware (N = 214) n (row %) Total (N = 453) n (column %)
Age (years)     0.162
  16 – 24 years 47 (44.3) 59 (55.7) 106 (23.4)  
  25 – 34 years 54 (61.4) 34 (38.6) 88 (19.4)  
  35 – 44 years 55 (56.7) 42 (43.3) 97 (21.4)  
  45 – 54 years 47 (50.0) 47 (50.0) 94 (20.8)  
  55 years and over 30 (51.7) 28 (48.3) 58 (12.8)  
  Unknownb 6 (60.0) 4 (40.0) 10 (2.2)  
Gender Identity     0.271
  Cis man 135 (52.9) 120 (47.1) 255 (56.3)  
  Cis woman 95 (54.6) 79 (45.4) 174 (38.4)  
  Trans and gender expansive 8 (36.4) 14 (63.6) 22 (4.9)  
  Unknownb 1 (50.0) 1 (50.0) 2 (0.4)  
Indigenous Self-Identification     0.097
  Indigenous 81 (47.1) 91 (52.9) 172 (38.0)  
  Non-Indigenous 133 (55.9) 105 (44.1) 238 (52.5)  
  Unknownb 25 (58.1) 18 (41.9) 43 (9.5)  
Health Region     0.392
  Fraser 49 (51.6) 46 (48.4) 95 (21.0)  
  Interior 72 (59.0) 50 (41.0) 122 (26.9)  
  Island 43 (46.2) 50 (53.8) 93 (20.5)  
  Northern 19 (47.5) 21 (52.5) 40 (8.8)  
  Vancouver Coastal 56 (54.4) 47 (45.6) 103 (22.7)  
Housing Status     0.852
  Private 89 (52.7) 80 (47.3) 169 (37.3)  
  Supportive or Unstable Housing 112 (54.9) 92 (45.1) 204 (45.0)  
  Homeless 35 (51.5) 33 (48.5) 68 (15.0)  
  Unknownb 3 (25.0) 9 (75.0) 12 (2.6)  
Employment     0.999
  Yes 77 (52.7) 69 (47.3) 146 (32.2)  
  No 153 (52.8) 137 (47.2) 290 (64.0)  
  Unknownb 9 (52.9) 8 (47.1) 17 (3.8)  
Cellphone Possession     0.023
  Yes 167 (56.4) 129 (43.6) 296 (65.3)  
  No 60 (44.1) 76 (55.9) 136 (30.0)  
  Unknownb 12 (57.1) 9 (42.9) 21 (4.6)  
Perceived Risk of Experiencing an Overdose (last 6 months)c      < 0.01
  Never 95 (45.0) 116 (55.0) 211 (46.6)  
  Ever 138 (59.7) 93 (40.3) 231 (51.0)  
  Unknownb 6 (54.5) 5 (45.5) 11 (2.4)  
Perceived Risk of Witnessing an Overdose (last 6 months)c      < 0.01
  Never 11 (22.0) 39 (78.0) 50 (11.0)  
  Ever 222 (56.8) 169 (43.2) 391 (86.3)  
  Unknownb 6 (50.0) 6 (50.0) 12 (2.6)  
Opioid Use (last 6 months)      < 0.01
  Yes 157 (57.7) 115 (42.3) 272 (60.0)  
  No 66 (42.6) 89 (57.4) 155 (34.2)  
  Unknownb 16 (61.5) 10 (38.5) 26 (5.7)  
Opioid Overdose (last 6 months)d     0.224
  Yes 53 (63.9) 30 (36.1) 83 (18.3)  
  No 99 (55.0) 81 (45.0) 180 (39.7)  
  Didn’t use opioids 66 (42.6) 89 (57.4) 155 (34.2)  
  Unknownb 21 (60.0) 14 (40.0) 35 (7.7)  
Stimulant Overdose (last 6 months)     0.286
  Yes 43 (59.7) 29 (40.3) 72 (15.9)  
  No 182 (52.0) 168 (48.0) 350 (77.3)  
  Unknownb 14 (45.2) 17 (54.8) 31 (6.8)  
Opioid Overdose Witnessed (last 6 months)      < 0.01
  Yes 158 (61.5) 99 (38.5) 257 (56.7)  
  No 58 (39.7) 88 (60.3) 146 (32.2)  
  Unknownb 23 (46.0) 27 (54.0) 50 (11.0)  
Stimulant Overdose Witnessed (last 6 months)     0.026
  Yes 103 (59.5) 70 (40.5) 173 (38.2)  
  No 111 (47.8) 121 (52.2) 232 (51.2)  
  Unknownb 25 (52.1) 23 (47.9) 48 (10.6)  
  1. a Chi square tests exclude participants with unknown explanatory variables
  2. bUnknown includes missing and “prefer not to say” responses
  3. c “Never” = “Never”; “Ever” = “Rarely/sometimes/often/all the time”
  4. d “Didn’t use opioids” is shown but is not included in the chi square test