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Table 1 Coding structure

From: Practitioners’ perspectives on family-based intervention for illicit drug-using adolescents in Taiwan: a qualitative study

Themes Nodes
Family relationship Hard to reach, dysfunctional, substance-using, passive, unaware, actively seeking help, mixed feelings, hard to change, harsh parenting, middle class, criminal, poor communication
Experiences of working with family making contact home visit, empathetic conversation
Supporting the family resources referral, parent meetings, court service, substance information
Family intervention parent counseling, voluntary parenting education, family support group, parent and children group, mandatory parenting education, different social workers for youth and family, parent and children meetings
Obstacles Mandatory sanctions weaken the family
Ineffective mandatory parenting education
Challenges for family programmes Juvenile-centered principle, few resources, project sustainability, family-based project does not work, parental consent, court decision excludes family, too many resources for ineffective treatment, service dilemma, legitimacy of service, parenting education for disabled people, lacking evaluation tools
Family service suggestions More family counseling and less mandatory education, more family-based projects, parent obligations, family decision making, family preservation programmes in institutions, focusing on vulnerable family, family therapy, improving the quality of mandatory education, parent notification for 3rd or 4th grade listed substance use, graded family programme options