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Table 2 Meta-themes within conceptual categories

From: Tobacco use, smoking identities and pathways into and out of smoking among young adults: a meta-ethnography

Conceptual category


1. Reasons for taking up smoking

1.1 Alleviating stress

1.2 Influence of family and friends

1.3 Transition to further study, employment or leaving home

1.4 Experimenting with other risk-taking behaviours

2. Adopting a smoker identity

2.1 Transforming identity: a mature image

2.2 Transforming identity: a rebellious image

2.3 Sense of belonging

2.4 Smoking in groups to prevent negative reactions

2.5 Smoking to facilitate new relationships

2.6 Alcohol and social smoking

3. Stigma of smoking

3.1 Sensing social disapproval

3.2 Women stigmatised for smoking

4. Barriers to quitting

4.1 Pleasure of smoking

4.2 Minimising the health risk of smoking

4.3 Not identifying with addiction

4.4 Not identifying as a smoker

5. Factors facilitating quit attempts

5.1 Health concerns

5.2 Self-motivation and self-confidence

5.3 Pregnancy

5.4 Recognising own addiction to smoking

5.5 Non-smoking peers