Skip to main content

Table 1 Change in post-volume pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods among leading substances discussed on opioid-related forums

From: Concerns among people who use opioids during the COVID-19 pandemic: a natural language processing analysis of social media posts

  Pre-COVID-19 period daily average COVID-19 period daily average Difference Change (%)
Medications for Opioid Use Disorder and Overdose Reversal
  Methadone 20.751 56.313 35.562 171.4%
  Naltrexone 1.087 2.451 1.364 125.5%
  Buprenorphine 18.426 36.225 17.800 96.6%
  Naloxone 1.680 3.116 1.436 85.5%
Other Substances used in Non-Medical Settings
  Iboga 0.520 1.175 0.655 125.9%
  Kratom 3.454 7.222 3.768 109.1%
Prescription and Illegal Opioids
  Hydrocodone 0.986 2.687 1.701 172.6%
  Fentanyl 9.506 25.404 15.898 167.2%
  Oxycodone 2.191 5.796 3.606 164.6%
  Other prescription opioids 1.605 3.687 2.083 129.8%
  Heroin 8.325 14.677 6.352 76.3%
  Carfentanil 0.325 0.411 0.086 26.5%
Other Medications
  Diphenhydraminea 0.341 0.927 0.586 171.8%
  Diazepam 0.504 1.324 0.820 162.9%
  Other benzodiazepines 4.791 11.178 6.388 133.3%
  Alprazolam 1.384 3.164 1.780 128.7%
  Dextromethorphana 0.146 0.291 0.145 99.4%
  Dextroamphetamine 1.252 2.131 0.879 70.2%
  1. Substances are ordered by percentage change within each medication grouping. Category of “other opioids” and “other benzodiazepines” represents all such medications not explicitly mentioned in the table. Counts are based on generic and trade names, and their common misspellings
  2. aDenotes substances available in over-the-counter forms