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Table 3 Education on assessment, evaluation, and treatment

From: HealthCare educational differences in pain management, adverse childhood experiences and their relationship to substance use disorder education

Are students trained/educated/taught… Medicine
N (%)
APRN
N (%)
Physician Assistant
N (%)
Pharmacy
N (%)
Dentistry
N (%)
Optometry
N (%)
To evaluate a patient using interviewing techniques such as motivational interviewing? 5 (71.4%) 4 (66.7%) 7 (87.5%) 6 (85.7%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
To evaluate a patient’s risk of medication abuse based on:
 Age? 4 (57.1%) 4 (66.7%) 7 (87.5%) 2 (28.6%) 1 (50%) --
 Culture? 1 (14.3%) 2 (33.3%) 4 (50%) 2 (28.6%) -- --
 Gender? 3 (42.9%) 2 (33.3%) 5 (62.5%) 2 (28.6%) -- --
 Disease history? 6 (85.7%) 5 (83.3%) 7 (87.5%) 4 (57.1%) 1 (50%) --
How to search for a patient history of pain medication usage using Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs such as OARRS? 6 (85.7%) 3 (50%) 7 (87.5%) 5 (71.4%) 1 (50%) 1 (100%)
On the best practice methods to initiate and manage substance use disorder treatment? 5 (71.4%) 5 (83.3%) 8 (100%) 5 (71.4%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
In encounters involving high risk patients?a 6 (85.7%) 3 (50%) 4 (50%) 3 (42.9%) 1 (50%) 0 (0%)
In methods to safely taper pain medications? 5 (71.4%) 3 (50%) 6 (75%) 6 (85.7%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
How to support patients to avoid drug misuse? 5 (71.4%) 4 (66.7%) 7 (87.5%) 4 (57.1%) 1 (50%) 0 (0%)
How to support patients to avoid drug relapse? 3 (42.9%) 1 (16.7%) 5 (62.5%) 1 (14.3%) 1 (50%) 0 (0%)
On the steps to take when a patient has overdosed? 5 (71.4%) 4 (66.7%) 8 (100%) 6 (85.7%) 1 (50%) 0 (0%)
How to restart therapy after a relapse? 3 (42.9%) 0 (0%) 4 (50%) 3 (42.9%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
How to restart therapy after an overdose? 2 (28.6%) 0 (0%) 4 (50%) 2 (28.6%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
About the signs of substance misuse in chronic pain patient populations? 5 (71.4%) 4 (66.7%) 8 (100%) 6 (85.7%) 1 (50%) 1 (100%)
  1. a (High risk patients, according to the CDC< are those who exhibit some or all of the following: a past history of overdose, a history of substance use disorder, high opioid dosages (>50 MME/day), and concurrent benzodiazepine use.)