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Table 4 Multinomial regression results. Adjusteda within-person change in alcohol consumption (change in days, drinks, binge occasions) for an increase in off-premise alcohol outlets within a 1.6 km bufferb. N = 714c

From: Alcohol outlets and alcohol consumption in changing environments: prevalence and changes over time

   Distribution Adjusted 95% confidence interval P
N in the sample odds ratiod low high value
Change in number of drinking days per week
 1. No change 288 40% Referent    
 2. Increased 206 29% 1.64 1.00 2.68 0.049
 3. Decreased 220 31% 1.23 0.76 2.00 0.409
Change in number of drinks per week
 1. No change 239 33% Referent    
 2. Increased 244 34% 1.55 0.95 2.55 0.081
 3. Decreased 231 32% 0.97 0.58 1.62 0.908
Change number of binge occasions (past 30 days)e
 1. No change 483 68% Referent    
 2. Increased 126 18% 1.16 0.68 1.97 0.588
 3. Decreased 105 15% 1.01 0.57 1.79 0.984
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval
  2. aAdjusted for age at baseline, gender, race/ethnicity, per capita income, education, history of chronic disease (binary), moved from ZIP code at follow-up, state at follow-up (Pennsylvania vs non-Pennsylvania), and population density per 1.6 km area (quartiles)
  3. bThe exposure is a binary variable: increase in outlets vs. no increase in outlets (referent category) using the measure ‘count of outlets in 1.6 km buffer’. The category for ‘decrease’ in outlets was not included because very few participants experienced a decrease in outlets. Per population standardization was not needed for the exposure variable in longitudinal model because the exposure was within-person change in outlet exposure and population density did not change much (because participants remained in their state). Nevertheless, we included population density (quartiles) as an adjustment variable in the model
  4. cThe sample size for this table slightly decreased (from N = 772 to N = 714). We deleted the 58 participants who experienced a decrease in alcohol outlet density during follow-up
  5. dOdds ratios derived from multinomial logit regression as appropriate for 3-level outcome: alcohol consumption no change (referent category), decrease, increase. Change defined as | > 0| days per week, | > 0| drinks per week, | > 0| binge days per month
  6. eBinge refers to past 30 days consumed a large volume of alcohol during a single occasion (> = 5 drinks for males, > = 4 drinks for females)