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Table 4 Logistic regression analysis of risk indicators for any current illicit drug use among young people from the Kenyan coast

From: Alcohol and illicit drug use among young people living with HIV compared to their uninfected peers from the Kenyan coast: prevalence and risk indicators

Covariate Whole sample, n = 812 YLWH, n = 406 HIV uninfected young people, n = 406
Univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
Multivariable analysis
aOR (95% CI)
Univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
Multivariable analysis
aOR (95% CI)
Univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
Multivariable analysis
aOR (95% CI)
Sex
 Female Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Male 8.07*** (4.32, 15.09) 6.65*** (3.35, 13.20) 5.89*** (2.35, 14.76) 4.80*** (1.82, 12.68) 9.32*** (3.91, 22.23) 13.08*** (4.28, 39.98)
Area of residence
 Rural (Kilifi) Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Urban (Mombasa) 2.14*** (1.35, 3.39) 2.12** (1.19, 3.78) 3.58*** (1.50, 8.54) 2.93** (1.14, 7.54) 1.68* (0.96, 2.95)
Religion Overall p = 0.02   Overall p = 0.12   Overall p = 0.14  
Muslim 1.77** (1.07, 2.92) 2.45*** (1.30, 4.61) 2.32** (1.05, 5.11) 3.13** (1.24, 7.89) 1.52 (0.79, 2.93)
Christian Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
No religion 2.36** (1.04, 5.37) 2.75 (0.91, 8.32) 1.33 (0.16, 10.83) 0.68 (0.06, 7.42) 2.26* (0.90, 5.68)
Asset index 1.25*** (1.09, 1.43) 1.44*** (1.20, 1.72) 1.49*** (1.15, 1.92)
Negative life events Overall p = 0.06     Overall p = 0.08  
 None Ref Ref Ref
 1–5 events 3.15* (0.96, 10.33) 3.32 (0.91, 12.10) 2.72* (0.80, 9.17)
 6+ events 4.06** (1.22, 13.59) 4.08** (1.08, 15.48) 4.00** (1.13, 14.17)
Parent living status Overall p = 0.05     Overall p = 0.01  
 Both alive 2.26** (1.04, 4.89) 3.15** (1.31, 7.58) Ref Ref
 One alive 2.66** (1.19, 5.95) 3.38*** (1.35, 8.49) 2.26*** (1.25, 4.11) 3.04*** (1.35, 6.81)
 Both deadb Ref Ref 1.00 1.00
Current alcohol use
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 12.41*** (7.65, 20.14) 13.32*** (7.56, 23.48) 7.56*** (3.43, 16.66) 9.90*** (3.93, 24.95) 15.20*** (8.00, 28.91) 11.92*** (5.84, 24.32)
Emotional problemsa
 Not present Ref Ref
 Present 2.85** (1.04, 7.81) 7.30*** (1.65, 32.30)
n of the final model   812   406   393
Variance explained (R2)   32.3%   23.3%   38.8%
  1. * p value< 0.15, ** p value < 0.05, *** p value < 0.01
  2. Only variables with p-value < 0.15 in the univariate and p < 0.05 in the multivariable analysis are presented here
  3. aco-occurrence of both depressive and anxiety symptoms
  4. bfor this variable category, no participant currently used any illicit drug, hence there was perfect prediction of failure in logistic regression analyses denoted by null value of 1.00
  5. OR Odds ratio, aOR Adjusted odds ratio, Ref Reference group