Skip to main content

Table 3 Logistic regression analysis of risk indicators for any current alcohol use among young people from the Kenyan coast

From: Alcohol and illicit drug use among young people living with HIV compared to their uninfected peers from the Kenyan coast: prevalence and risk indicators

Covariate Whole sample, n = 812 YLWH, n = 406 HIV uninfected young people, n = 406
Univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
Multivariable analysis
aOR (95% CI)
Univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
Multivariable analysis
aOR (95% CI)
Univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
Multivariable analysis
aOR (95% CI)
Sex
 Female Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Male 2.60*** (1.78, 3.78) 1.79** (1.13, 2.85) 2.02** (1.12, 3.63) 2.78*** (1.69, 4.60) 1.90** (1.01, 3.57)
Religion Overall p = 0.03   Overall p = 0.06   Overall p = 0.12  
 Muslim Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Christian 2.01*** (1.20, 3.36) 3.67*** (1.93, 7.00) 2.83** (1.09, 7.36) 4.37*** (1.47, 13.02) 1.71* (0.91, 3.21) 3.54*** (1.53, 8.16)
 No religion 2.22* (0.92, 5.35) 4.01** (1.34, 11.97) 4.92* (1.02, 23.76) 8.59** (1.28, 57.53) 1.32 (0.45, 3.86) 2.67 (0.66, 10.83)
Education Overall p < 0.01   Overall p = 0.03   Overall p = 0.02  
Secondary Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Tertiary 2.38*** (1.56, 3.64) 2.42*** (1.47, 4.00) 2.29** (1.10, 4.79) 2.17* (0.97, 4.84) 2.19*** (1.29, 3.73) 2.60*** (1.32, 5.11)
Primary 1.00 (0.64, 1.58) 1.08 (0.61, 1.92) 0.87 (0.44, 1.72) 0.61 (0.28, 1.35) 1.34 (0.72, 2.49) 2.04 (0.86, 4.82)
Noneb 1.14 (0.24, 5.33) 1.63 (0.25, 10.70) 1.00 1.00 4.59* (0.62, 33.84) 15.42** (1.26, 188.36)
Living arrangement Overall p < 0.01   Overall p = 0.06   Overall p = 0.04  
 Family/Relative Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Friend/non-relative 1.52 (0.49, 4.75) 1.22 (0.33, 4.51) 2.17 (0.44, 10.79) 1.18 (0.23, 5.97) 0.55 (0.06, 4.66)
 Alone 2.48*** (1.47, 4.16) 2.45*** (1.30, 4.61) 2.53** (1.11, 5.75) 2.47** (1.24, 4.89) 3.48*** (1.50, 8.05)
Asset index 1.27*** (1.14, 1.42) 1.34*** (1.17, 1.55) 1.16* (0.97, 1.38) 1.32*** (1.14, 1.53) 1.44*** (1.18, 1.76)
Negative life events Overall p < 0.01     Overall p < 0.01  
None Ref Ref Ref Ref
 1–5 events 1.27 (0.62, 2.57) 1.35 (0.59, 3.09) 1.61 (0.69, 3.78) 1.47 (0.53, 4.09)
 6+ events 2.48** (1.21, 5.09) 3.17*** (1.35, 7.46) 3.85*** (1.58, 9.42) 4.13** (1.37, 12.45)
Currently smoking
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 10.68*** (5.76, 19.81) 5.97*** (2.73, 13.08) 5.53*** (2.11, 14.47) 17.48*** (6.91, 44.18) 13.42*** (4.45, 40.50)
Current khat use
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 10.81*** (6.40, 18.24) 8.59*** (4.46, 16.55) 11.43*** (5.21, 25.10) 15.75*** (6.51, 38.12) 10.52*** (5.11, 21.67) 7.99*** (3.11, 20.51)
Emotional problemsa
 Not present Ref Ref
 Present 1.88* (0.94, 3.76) 2.27** (1.02, 5.05)
n of the final model   811   398   405
Variance explained (R2)   25.0%   17.6%   30.1%
  1. * p value< 0.15, ** p value < 0.05, *** p value < 0.01
  2. Only variables with p-value < 0.15 in the univariate and p < 0.05 in the multivariable analysis are presented here
  3. aco-occurrence of both depressive and anxiety symptoms
  4. bfor this variable category, no participant currently used any alcohol type, hence there was perfect prediction of failure in the regression analyses denoted by null value of 1.00
  5. OR Odds ratio, aOR Adjusted odds ratio, Ref Reference group