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Table 1 Characteristics of young people from the Kenyan coast (n = 812), shown by HIV infection status

From: Alcohol and illicit drug use among young people living with HIV compared to their uninfected peers from the Kenyan coast: prevalence and risk indicators

Characteristic Whole sample
N = 812
HIV infection status P-value
HIV uninfected youths, n = 406 YLWH, n = 406
Area of residence
 Kilifi (rural) 403 (49.6) 200 (49.3) 203 (50.0) 0.83
 Mombasa (urban) 409 (50.4) 206 (50.7) 203 (50.0)  
Age – in years as mean (SD) 20.9 (2.1) 21.0 (1.9) 20.8 (2.2) 0.13
Sex
 Female 412 (50.7) 182 (44.8) 230 (56.7) < 0.01
 Male 400 (49.3) 224 (55.2) 176 (43.4)  
Education level
Tertiary 193 (23.8) 130 (32.0) 63 (15.5) < 0.01
Secondary 354 (43.6) 179 (44.1) 175 (43.1)  
Primary 253 (31.2) 93 (22.9) 160 (39.4)  
None 12 (1.5) 4 (1.0) 8 (2.0)  
Employment
 Formally employed 27 (3.3) 11 (2.7) 16 (3.9) 0.16
 Self-employed 94 (11.6) 52 (12.8) 42 (10.3)  
 Student 303 (37.3) 162 (39.9) 141 (34.7)  
 Unemployed 388 (47.8) 181 (44.6) 207 (51.0)  
Religion
Muslim 169 (20.8) 82 (20.2) 87 (21.4) 0.06
Christian 602 (74.1) 296 (72.9) 306 (75.4)  
No religion 41 (5.1) 28 (6.9) 13 (3.2)  
Relationship status, missing = 2
Never married 670 (82.7) 358 (88.6) 312 (76.9) < 0.01
Separated with partner 32 (4.0) 8 (2.0) 24 (5.9)  
Married/cohabiting 108 (13.3) 38 (9.4) 70 (17.2)  
Living arrangement
Family/Relative 720 (88.7) 359 (88.4) 361 (88.9) 0.91
Friend/non-relative 17 (2.1) 8 (2.0) 9 (2.2)  
Alone 75 (9.2) 39 (9.6) 36 (8.9)  
Parental loss
Both parents alive 429 (52.8) 308 (75.9) 121 (29.8) < 0.01
One parent alive 238 (29.3) 85 (20.9) 153 (37.7)  
Both parents died 145 (17.9) 13 (3.2) 132 (32.5)  
Negative life events
None 80 (9.9) 51 (12.6) 29 (7.1) < 0.01
1–5 events 476 (58.6) 255 (62.8) 221 (54.4)  
6+ events 256 (31.5) 100 (24.6) 156 (38.4)  
Currently smoking a, missing = 1
No 761 (93.8) 374 (92.4) 387 (95.3) 0.08
Yes 50 (6.2) 31 (7.6) 19 (4.7)  
Current khat use, missing = 1
No 739 (91.1) 364 (89.9) 375 (92.4) 0.21
Yes 72 (8.9) 41 (10.1) 31 (7.6)  
Emotional problems #
Not present 728 (89.7) 387 (95.3) 341 (84.0) < 0.01
Present 84 (10.3) 19 (4.7) 65 (16.0)  
Asset index score b – mean (SD) 2.4 (1.6) 2.6 (1.6) 2.2 (1.6) < 0.01
Negative life events scale c – median (IQR) 4 (2–6) 3 (2–5) 5 (3–7) < 0.01
PHQ-9 score d – median (IQR) 4 (1–9) 3 (1–6) 6 (3–10) < 0.01
GAD-7 score e – median (IQR) 4 (1–7) 3 (0–5) 5 (2–8) < 0.01
  1. All numbers are reported as frequencies with percentages in brackets unless otherwise specified
  2. p-values are for the difference between HIV infected and uninfected youths by sample characteristic
  3. YLWH Young people living with HIV, SD Standard deviation, IQR Interquartile range, PHQ-9 The 9-item patient health questionnaire, GAD-7 The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, based on Fisher’s exact test, based on Wilcoxon’s ranksum test, # co-occurrence of both depressive and anxiety symptoms, a – tobacco-based cigarette, b – possible score range = 0 to 7, c – score range = 0 to 15, d – score range = 0 to 27, e – score range = 0 to 21