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Table 3 Associations of fatal opioid overdose (OD). N = 22,079. Cox Regression Models (Hazard Ratios and 95% CIs)

From: Socioeconomic correlates of incident and fatal opioid overdose among Swedish people with opioid use disorder

  UNIVARIATE MODELS MULTIVARIATE MODEL
Male sex 2.10 (1.77; 2.49)* 1.77 (1.49; 2.11)*
Age at OUD registration 0.97 (0.97; 0.98)* 0.88 (0.86; 0.90)*
Year of birth 1.02 (1.02; 1.03)* 0.90 (0.88; 0.93)*
Country of birth
 Nordic countries (vs. Sweden) 1.51 (1.04; 2.18)a* NS
 Europe (vs. Sweden) 0.59 (0.40; 0.87)a* NS
 Asia (vs. Sweden) 0.56 (0.40; 0.79)a* NS
 Outside Europe/Asia (vs. Sweden) 0.78 (0.49; 1.26)a* NS
Criminal conviction 2.01 (1.67; 2.41)a* 1.93 (1.61; 2.32)*
Education (years) 0.94 (0.91; 0.97)a* NS
School grades 0.95 (0.87; 1.03)a* N/Ab
IQ 0.89 (0.78; 1.01)a N/Ab
Resilience 0.88 (0.78; 1.00)a N/Ab
Parental education (years) 1.00 (0.97; 1.03)a N/Ab
Social welfare 1.33 (1.15; 1.55)a* NS
Income 0.84 (0.72; 0.97)a* NS
Neighborhood deprivation 1.03 (0.99; 1.06)a NS
Married 0.76 (0.62; 0.94)a* NS
1 ≤ children 0.84 (0.70; 1.00)a NS
Distance to mother
 0–10 km (vs. same place) 0.88 (0.73; 1.06)a N/Ab
 10–50 km (vs. same place) 1.09 (0.83; 1.43)a N/Ab
 50+ km (vs. same place) 1.14 (0.68; 1.92)a N/Ab
Distance to father
 0–10 km (vs. same place) 0.86 (0.70; 1.06)a N/Ab
 10–50 km (vs. same place) 0.96 (0.72; 1.29)a N/Ab
 50+ km (vs. same place) 1.08 (0.65; 1.79)a N/Ab
Prior OUD/opioid OD 2.90 (2.28; 3.70)* 2.12 (1.65; 2.72)*
Inpatient registration of OUD 1.23 (1.06; 1.43)a* NS
Psychiatric disorder 1.66 (1.42; 1.93)a* 1.59 (1.36; 1.85)*
  1. HR Hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, OD overdose, OUD opioid use disorder, N/A not available, NS not significant
  2. aControlled for sex, age at registration, year of birth, prior OUD/opioid OD
  3. bVariable not included in the multivariable analysis due to a relatively large proportion of missing information. These variables were not missing due to poor register quality; rather, they were missing because not all individuals were represented in all registers (e.g. The Conscript Register includes almost exclusively men)
  4. * p < 0.05