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Table 2 Associations of incident opioid overdose (OD). N = 22,079. Cox Regression Models (Hazard ratios and 95% CIs)

From: Socioeconomic correlates of incident and fatal opioid overdose among Swedish people with opioid use disorder

  UNIVARIATE MODELS MULTIVARIATE MODEL
Male sex 1.43 (1.34; 1.53)* 1.29 (1.20; 1.38)*
Age at OUD registration 0.97 (0.97; 0.97)* 1.04 (1.03; 1.05)*
Year of birth 1.03 (1.03; 1.04)* 1.07 (1.06; 1.08)*
Country of birth
 Nordic countries (vs. Sweden) 1.07 (0.89; 1.30)a 1.08 (0.88; 1.32)
 Europe (vs. Sweden) 0.75 (0.64; 0.87)a* 0.84 (0.72; 0.98)*
 Asia (vs. Sweden) 0.58 (0.51; 0.67)a* 0.63 (0.55; 0.74)*
 Outside Europe/Asia (vs. Sweden) 0.96 (0.80; 1.15)a 0.99 (0.82; 1.19)
Criminal conviction 1.85 (1.73; 1.99)a* 1.53 (1.42; 1.65)*
Education (years) 0.92 (0.90; 0.93)a* 0.96 (0.94; 0.97)*
School Grades 0.91 (0.88; 0.94)a* N/Ab
IQ 0.87 (0.81; 0.92)a* N/Ab
Resilience 0.91 (0.86; 0.97)a* N/Ab
Parental education (years) 0.98 (0.96; 0.99)a* N/Ab
Social welfare 1.60 (1.51; 1.71)a* 1.31 (1.22; 1.39)*
Income 0.75 (0.69; 0.82)a* NS
Neighborhood deprivation 1.02 (1.00; 1.03)a* NS
Married 0.78 (0.72; 0.85)a* NS
1 ≤ children 1.01 (0.94; 1.08)a NS
Distance to mother   N/Ab
 0–10 km (vs. same place) 0.95 (0.88; 1.03)a N/Ab
 10–50 km (vs. same place) 1.18 (1.05; 1.32)a* N/Ab
 50+ km (vs. same place) 1.36 (1.11; 1.66)a* N/Ab
Distance to father   N/Ab
 0–10 km (vs. same place) 1.06 (0.96; 1.16)a N/Ab
 10–50 km (vs. same place) 1.15 (1.01; 1.30)a* N/Ab
 50+ km (vs. same place) 1.23 (1.00; 1.52)a* N/Ab
Prior OUD/opioid OD 1.96 (1.73; 2.22)* 1.70 (1.49; 1.94)*
Inpatient registration of OUD 1.31 (1.23; 1.40)a* 1.28 (1.20; 1.36)*
Psychiatric disorder 1.96 (1.84; 2.09)a* 1.76 (1.64; 1.89)*
  1. HR Hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, OD overdose, OUD opioid use disorder, N/A not available, NS not significant
  2. aControlled for sex, age at registration, year of birth, prior OUD/opioid OD
  3. bVariable not included in the multivariable analysis due to a relatively large proportion of missing information. These variables were not missing due to poor register quality; rather, they were missing because not all individuals were represented in all registers (e.g. The Conscript Register includes almost exclusively men)
  4. * p < 0.05