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Table 4 Demographics, substance characteristics and clinical presentation of the ER patients compared with ward admission group and the ICU admission group

From: Acute Toxic Effects of the New Psychoactive Substance “Voodoo” among Patients presented to the Poison Control Center of Ain Shams University Hospitals (PCC-ASUH), Egypt, during 2017

Variables ER observation
(N = 23)
Ward admission
(N = 11)
ICU admission
(N = 37)
p-value
Demographics and substance characteristics
Age (years), Mean ± SD 25.0 ± 11.2 27.3 ± 5.3 24.7 ± 9.5 a0.733
Age categories (years) < 20 11 (47.8 %) 0 (0.0 %) 13 (35.1 %) c 0.014d
20 − 39 9 (39.1 %) 11 (100.0 %) 20 (54.1 %)
40 − 50 3 (13.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 4 (10.8 %)
Sex Male 23 (100.0 %) 11 (100.0 %) 35 (94.6 %) c 0.658
Female 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 2 (5.4 %)
Type of substance Mixed substances 12 (52.2 %) 8 (72.7 %) 19 (51.4 %) b0.434
Voodoo only 11 (47.8 %) 3 (27.3 %) 18 (48.6 %)
Delay time (hours) 1 − 2 11 (47.8 %) 2 (18.2 %) 14 (37.8 %) c 0.170
3 8 (34.8 %) 3 (27.3 %) 8 (21.6 %)
≥ 4.0 4 (17.4 %) 6 (54.5 %) 15 (40.5 %)
Clinical presentation
Tachycardia 2 (8.7 %) 0 (0.0 %) 20 (54.1 %) b<0.001d
Bradycardia 0 (0.0 %) 2 (18.2 %) 8 (21.6 %) c 0.037d
Hypertension 1 (4.3 %) 0 (0.0 %) 7 (18.9 %) c 0.114
Hypotension 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 9 (24.3 %) c 0.009
Tachypnea 0 (0.0 %) 5 (45.5 %) 14 (37.8 %) b0.002d
Bradypnea 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 10 (27.0 %) c 0.004
Fever 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 2 (5.4 %) c 0.658
Agitation 3 (13.0 %) 2 (18.2 %) 13 (35.1 %) b0.135
Coma 1 (4.3 %) 5 (45.5 %) 22 (59.5 %) b<0.001d
Seizures 0 (0.0 %) 2 (18.2 %) 8 (21.6 %) c 0.037d
Drowsiness 4 (17.4 %) 2 (18.2 %) 3 (8.1 %) c 0.438
Hallucination 3 (13.0 %) 1 (9.1 %) 3 (8.1 %) c 0.862
Hyporeflexia 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 5 (13.5 %) c 0.133
Miosis 2 (8.7 %) 2 (18.2 %) 7 (18.9 %) c 0.599
Mydriasis 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 4 (10.8 %) c 0.275
Chest pain 11 (47.8 %) 4 (36.4 %) 11 (29.7 %) b0.386
Cardiac arrest 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 2 (5.4 %) c 0.658
Shock 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 9 (24.3 %) c 0.009d
Dyspnea 15 (65.2 %) 5 (45.5 %) 9 (24.3 %) b0.007d
Cyanosis 0 (0.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 11 (29.7 %) 0.002d
Vomiting 6 (26.1 %) 4 (36.4 %) 12 (32.4 %) c 0.801
Epigastric pain 3 (13.0 %) 3 (27.3 %) 7 (18.9 %) c 0.586
  1. ER: Emergency room, ICU: Intensive care unit. Data presents as number (percent) unless mentioned otherwise. aIndependent t-test. bChi square test. cFishers Exact test. dSignificant (< 0.050