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Table 1 Overview of the identified AUDIT studies in the Russian Federation that were eligible for inclusion according to the criteria

From: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in the Russian language - a systematic review of validation efforts and application challenges

Reference Type of AUDIT validation performed/ reason for inclusion in the synthesis Year, region and studied population/sample Main outcome of the study in relation to the AUDIT
[42] Diary on alcohol consumption for the last 2 weeks and examination of skin status for signs and symptoms associated with alcohol consumption. 2010–2012, 926 patients presented at dermatologists/venereologists
(530 M and 396 F), Saint Petersburg.
Consumption estimates based on the AUDIT scores were significantly lower than estimates based on drinking diaries and the AUDIT combined. Skin symptoms were found to be helpful in screening for AUD.
[43] Diary on alcohol consumption for the last 2 weeks. Not reported, 100 male prison inmates (age range 19–47 years) and age-matched 191 male patients of dermatologists/venereologists and 50 patients of general practitioners, in Petersburg and the Leningrad Region. Proportion of people with hazardous and harmful consumption (AUDIT score ≥ 8) was 52% in inmates, and 57 and 80% in patients of dermatologists and general practitioners, respectively. Proportion of people with possible AUD (AUDIT score ≥ 20) was about the same in all groups - 16% in prison inmates, 14.7% in dermatology patients, and 20% in general practitioners’ patients. Consumption estimates based on the AUDIT scores were significantly lower than estimates based on drinking diaries alone.
[44] Symptoms of AUD measured with CIDI-SAM, AUDIT scores and SD counts reported for a sub-group of individuals with lifetime prevalence of AUD (n = 225). 2005–2007, 374 patients of state tuberculosis treatment services (282 M and 92 F), Tomsk. Subgroup of patients with lifetime prevalence of AUD: 225 (199 M and 26 F). 12 months prevalence of AUD in 39.7% males and in 17.4% females; lifetime prevalence of AUD in 70.6% males and 28.3% females. Mean AUDIT score in males: 14.7 with an average intake of 12.7 SD/drinking day. Mean AUDIT score in females: 8.6 with an average intake of 4.4 SD/drinking day. For the sub-sample of patients with AUD lifetime prevalence: mean AUDIT score in males was 17.1 and average SD intake 16.2 with 161 heavy drinking days in a year; mean AUDIT score in females was 17.5 and average SD intake 12.7 with 16 heavy drinking days in a year.
[41] The publication introduces an alternate version of the full AUDIT as an instrument recommended for screening in the PHC setting. Not applicable as this is an overview article. Two items have alternate answer options not found elsewhere; Question 2 has an alternate SD count (1–4;4–5;6–8;9–12; ≥ 13) and Question 3 asks for more than 7 SD.
[45] AUD diagnosed by a clinical specialist, using ICD-10 criteria, parameters of AUDIT compared with biomarkers. 2013, 807 patients admitted to emergency care (388 M and 388 F), Saint Petersburg. Correlation of AUDIT scores higher than 3 and the diagnosis “physical alcohol dependence”: r = 0.821 (p < 0.05).
[46] AUDIT. The publication gives an alternate definition of an SD as 10 ml/8 g of pure alcohol, 330 m of 5% beer, or 40 ml of spirits. Not reported, 93 law students (40 M and 53 F), Saratov. 20.4% of students (sex ratio not reported) had an AUDIT score of ≥8.
[47] Blood test (triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL), systolic blood pressure, comparison between number of SD and frequency reported in the first two AUDIT items and serum cholesterol level. 2016, 112 patients presented at a medical laboratory (sex ratio not reported, age range: 42–73 years), Omsk. Patients consuming > 7 SDs 2–3 times per week had significantly higher serum cholesterol levels than patients drinking 3–6 SDs 2–4 times per month (p = 0.033) and patients drinking 1–2 SDs once a month (p = 0.036).
[11] Diary on alcohol consumption for the last 2 weeks. 2010–2012, a total of 1538 subjects, out of which: 411 patients of general practitioners (345 M and 231 F), 581 patients of dermatologists/venereologists (175 M and 236 F), 17 F patients of obstetrics/gynecologists, 529 medical students (192 M and 336 F), Saint Petersburg and Moscow. Kappa coefficient between AUDIT and AUDIT-C reported as 0.650 (95% CI = 0.610–0.691).
Pearson correlation coefficient between alcohol consumption reported in the drinking diary and the full AUDIT was 0.285 and 0.294 for AUDIT-C (both p < 0.0001).
[48] Diary on alcohol consumption for the last 2 weeks. 2010–2012, a total of 1538 subjects, out of which: 411 patients of general practitioners (345 M and 231 F), 581 patients of dermatologists/venereologists (175 M and 236 F), 529 medical students (192 M and 336 F), 17 female patients of obstetrics/gynecologists, Saint Petersburg and Moscow. Prevalence of hazardous drinking (112 g /week for F and 280 g for M) and harmful drinking (280 g/ week for F and 400 g for M) was high in all patient groups when based on AUDIT score only: 76% male and 47% female dermatology patients, and 55% of male and 45% female general practitioners’ patients. Prevalence based on drinking diaries and AUDIT scores combined was lower.
[49] Blood test (AST, ALT, GGT, SCOE), comparison between two groups based on their AUDIT score (< 6 points and ≥ 6). Year not reported, 139 patients of a family medicine office (sex ratio not reported), Saint Petersburg. AUDIT scores ≥6 correlate with elevated levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and are considered to indicate possible AUD.
[50] AUDIT. The publication gives an alternate definition of an SD as 10 ml/8 g of pure alcohol, 330 ml of 5% beer, or 40 ml of spirits. Not reported, 99 medical students (38 M and 61 F), Saratov. 23.6% of male and 6.5% of female students had an AUDIT score ≥ 8.
[51] Symptoms of AUD measured with CIDI-SAM, parameters for each AUDIT score are reported. 2005–2007, 252 patients of state tuberculosis treatment services (183 M and 69 F), Tomsk. Median AUDIT score in the sample = 11.5 and 58.7% (n = 148) had an AUDIT score of ≥8.