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Table 4 Associations between alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and some maternal characteristics and adverse fetal outcomes at public health facilities in Gondar town, Northwest, Ethiopia, 2020

From: The effects of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on adverse fetal outcomes among pregnant women attending antenatal care at public health facilities in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study

Variables Low birth weight RR (95% CI) ARR (95% CI) Preterm RR (95% CI) ARR (95% CI)
Yes No Yes No
Age of the mother
 15–24 91(16.58) 458(83.42) 1 1 44(8.01) 505(91.99) 1 1
 25–34 108(10.61) 910(89.39) 0.64(0.49, 0.83) 0.80(0.59,1.08) 48(4.72) 970(95.28) 0.59(0.40, 0.87) 0.68(0.43,1.07)
  ≥ 35 14(11.76) 105(89.24) 0.71(0.42, 1.20) 0.89(0.47,1.67) 10(8.40) 109(91.60) 1.05(0.54, 2.02) 0.98(0.40,2.20)
Education level
 No formal education 40(10.93) 326(89.07) 0.94(0.64, 1.57) 1.50(1.01,2.23) 35(9.56) 331(90.44) 2.32(1.38,3.92) 1.45(0.78,2.68)
 Primary education 40(16.19) 207(83.81) 1.40(0.97, 2.03) 1.34(0.92,1.94) 18(7.29) 229(92.71) 1.77(0.96, 3.26) 0.98(0.49,1.99)
 Secondary education 74(13.14) 489(86.86) 1.14(0.82, 1.57) 1.44(0.92,2.25) 28(4.97) 535(95.03) 1.21(0.69, 2.10) 0.80(0.43,1.48)
 Tertiary education 59(11.57) 451(88.43) 1 1 21(4.12) 489(95.88) 1 1
Occupation
 Merchant 19(13.97) 117(86.03) 1 1 10(2.62) 372(97.38) 1 1
 Housewife 56(20.97) 211(79.03) 1.44(1.02,2.02) 1.83(0.83,1.68) 69(8.78) 709(91.13) 3.39(1.77,6.50) 2.87(1.47,5.62)
 Employed in any organization 20(13.07) 133(86.93) 1.05(0.70,1.60) 0.92(0.59,1.43) 14(3.67) 367(96.33) 1.40(0.63,3.12) 1.40(0.61,3.24)
 Others 5(17.86) 23(82.14) 1.28(0.77,2.15) 1.09(0.64,1.84) 9(6.21) 136(93.79) 2.37(0.98,5.72) 1.98(0.97,2.34)
Household wealth status
 Poorest 39(11.17) 310(88.83) 1 1
 Poor 54(15.74) 289(84.26) 1.4(0.96, 2.07) 1.26(0.86,1.85)
 Middle 20(6.35) 295(93.65) 0.57(0.34, 0.95) 0.57(0.34,0.96)
 Rich 49(14.37) 292(85.63) 1.29(0.87, 1.91) 1.23(0.84,1.83)
 Richest 51(15.09) 287(84.91) 1.35(0.91, 1.99) 1.05(0.69,1.59)
Family size
 1–2 97(15.09) 546(84.91) 1 1 50(7.78) 593(92.22) 1 1
 3–4 94(10.99) 761(88.01) 0.73(0.56, 0.95) 1.86(1.24,2.80) 38(4.58) 817(95.56) 0.57(0.38, 0.86) 0.73(0.34,1.57)
 5 and above 22(11.70) 166(88.30) 0.76(0.50, 1.19) 2.21(1.21,4.00) 14(7.45) 174(92.55) 0.96(0.54, 1.69) 1.00(0.33,3.01)
Parity
 Nulliparous 113(16.97) 553(83.03) 1.73(1.35,2.22) 2.53(1.68,3.82)
 Multiparous 100(9.8) 920(90.20) 1 1
Number of children
 No child yet 51(7.50) 629(92.50) 1 1
 1–2 38(4.58) 792(95.42) 0.61(0.41, 0.92) 0.96(0.43,2.12)
  ≥ 3 13(7.39) 163(92.61) 0.98(0.55, 1.76) 1.06(0.33,3.41)
Status of pregnancy
 Planned 176(12.07) 1282(87.93) 1 1
 Un planned 37(16.23) 191(83.77) 1.34(0.97,1.86) 1.23(0.89,1.71)
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
 Yes 14(8.59) 149(91.41) 1.50(0.87, 2.55) 1.97(1.14,3.39)
 No 88(5.78) 1435(94.22) 1 1
Alcohol consumption
 Hazardous 30(25.86) 86(74.14) 2.52(1.77, 3.59) 2.34(1.66, 3.30) 15(12.93) 101(87.07) 2.34(1.38, 3.98) 2.06(1.21,3.52)
 Non- hazardous 68(15.18) 380(84.82) 1.48(1.12, 1.96) 1.50(1.31,1.98) 25(5.58) 423(94.42) 1.01(0.64, 1.59) 1.03(0.66,1.62)
 Non-drinker 115(10.25) 1007(89.75) 1 1 62(5.53) 1060(94.47) 1 1
Sex of newborn
 Male 62(7.64) 750(92.36) 1 1
 Female 40(4.58) 834(95.42) 1.67(1.13,2.45) 1.55(1.05,2.27)
Anemia
 Yes 48(19.35) 200(80.65) 1.69(1.26, 2.26) 1.65(1.24,2.21)
 No 163(11.47) 1258(88.53) 1 1
Advise the risks of alcohol use during ANC visit
 Yes 37(9.05) 372(90.95) 1 1
 No 176(13.78) 1101(86.22) 1.52(1.09, 2.13) 1.32(0.94,1.84)
MUAC
  < 22 cm 48(18.75) 208(81.25) 1.63(1.21, 2.18) 1.47(1.09,1.97) 24(8.98) 232(90.63) 1.72(1.11, 2.66) 1.51(0.97,2.34)
  ≥ 22 cm 165(11.54) 1265(88.46) 1 1 78(5.45) 1352(94.55) 1 1