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Table 9 Summary of Evidence Related to Return to Smoking/Relapse

From: Assessing the evidence on the differential impact of menthol versus non-menthol cigarette use on smoking cessation in the U.S. population: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Sampling / Recruitment Strategya, Data Collection Period Study Findings Study Quality
Increased Return to Smoking/Relapse with Menthol Cigarette Use
 Muench & Juliano, 2017 [48] Sample was recruited from the Washington DC metropolitan area through flyers, word of mouth, and online advertisements According to logistic regression model results, menthol cigarette use was significantly associated with greater lapse risk (AOR = 3.474, p < 0.05). Similarly, menthol, versus non-menthol, use was significantly higher for risk of lapsing within the first 48 h of abstinence (HR = 2.798, Wald statistic = 2.79; p = 0.048). Good
 Pletcher et al., 2006 [54] CARDIA; 1985–2000 The odds of returning to smoking post-cessation were significantly higher for menthol, versus non-menthol, smokers (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.17 to 3.05; p = 0.009). Good
  1. a Details of sampling and recruitment strategies for the larger and/or national surveys can be found in Table 3: Study, Data Set, and Sample Characteristics