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Table 8 Summary of Evidence Related to Change in Smoking Quantity/Frequency

From: Assessing the evidence on the differential impact of menthol versus non-menthol cigarette use on smoking cessation in the U.S. population: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Sampling / Recruitment Strategya, Data Collection Period Study Findings Study Quality
Increase in Smoking Quantity/Frequency with Menthol Cigarette Use
 Azagba et al., 2020 [26] NYTS;
2017–2018
Significantly higher odds of using at least 10 days (versus (1–9 days) in the past 30 days compared with non-menthol cigarette smokers, in the full sample (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.94; p < 0.05) and in the stratified analyses for both middle school students (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI, 1.01 to 5.49; p < 0.05) and high school students (AOR = 1.41, 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.82; p < 0.05).
Significantly higher odds of using at least 20 days (versus (1–19 days) in the past 30 days compared with non-menthol cigarette smokers, in the full sample AOR = 1.62, 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.28; p < 0.05) and in the stratified analyses for both middle school students (AOR = 3.76, 95% CI, 1.21 to 11.71; p < 0.05) and high school students (AOR = 1.49, 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.07; p < 0.05).
Fair
No Difference in Change in Smoking Quantity/Frequency with Menthol Cigarette Use
 Hyland et al., 2002 [40]; Hyland & Rivard, 2010 [41] COMMIT;
1988–2001
No difference between menthol and non-menthol smokers in the odds of reducing daily cigarette use over 3 years (AOR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.07); subgroup analyses of Black and White smokers also found no difference. Similarly, change in CPD in 1993 according to cigarette type smoked in 1988 was no different in the overall sample (β-coefficient = 0.11, 95% CI: − 0.38 to 0.60), nor in Black, White, or Hispanic subgroups. Good
 Gubner et al., 2018 [38] Convenience sampling from each of 24 substance use disorder treatment centers (in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network), with self-administered surveys conducted during on-site visits;
April to December 2015
Applying an adjusted logistic regression model, the study found that the number of CPD was not significantly associated with menthol use (AOR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.00; p = 0.48). Fair
Results with Mixed Significance in Smoking Quantity/Frequency
 Reitzel, 2011c [58] Project MOM;
2005–2007
Decrease with Menthol Cigarette Use
Black female menthol, versus non-menthol, smokers reported substantially less cigarette reduction (measured by CPD) over the course of 26 weeks (β = 3.82, SE = 3.77; p = 0.02; n = 71).
No Difference
No difference among female menthol and non-menthol smokers, overall, in changes in smoking frequency over the 26-week period (β = − 0.38, SE = 1.15; t = −.33; p = .74; n = 222).
Good
 Sawdey et al., 2020 [62] NYTS;
2011–2018
Increase with Menthol Cigarette Use
Odds of frequent smokers (on ≥20 days in the past 30 days) being menthol smokers was significantly higher than being non-menthol smokers (AOR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.08–2.29).
No Difference
No significant difference in the odds of moderate smokers (on 6 to 19 days in the past 30 days) being menthol versus non-menthol smokers (AOR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.86–1.59). The overall p = value across both groups—frequent and moderate smokers—was non-significant (p = 0.064).
Good
  1. a Details of sampling and recruitment strategies for the data sources can be found in Table 3: Study, Data Set, and Sample Characteristics