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Table 6 Summary of Evidence Related to Quit Attempts

From: Assessing the evidence on the differential impact of menthol versus non-menthol cigarette use on smoking cessation in the U.S. population: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Sampling / Recruitment Strategya, Data Collection Period Study Findings Study Quality
Decreased Quit Attempts with Menthol
 Kahende et al., 2011 [42] TUS-CPS; 2003, 2006/2007 White menthol smokers had significantly lower odds of having made a quit attempt in the past year (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.84 to 0.99; p < 0.05). Fair
No Difference in Quits Attempt with Menthol Cigarette Use
 Kasza et al., 2014 [43] ITC-4, 2002–2011 No difference between smokers who switched from menthol to non-menthol cigarettes compared to smokers who continued smoking menthol cigarettes in quit attempts during (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.52) or after (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.66 to 1.60) the switch. Switchers from non-menthol to menthol cigarettes were also no different from smokers who attempted to quit but continued with non-menthol cigarettes during (AOR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.57) or after (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.57 to 1.44) the switch. Fair
 Park, 2017 [53] Dual frame random-digit dialing sample; October 2012 to July 2013 No difference between menthol and non-menthol smokers in the likelihood of a past-year quit attempt (AOR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.97 to1.46; p = 0.92). Good
 Rath et al., 2015 [55] LYAC; 2011–2012 No difference between menthol and non-menthol smokers in ever having made a quit attempt (AOR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.43 to 1.63) or having made a quit attempt in the past 6 months (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.30 to 1.27). Fair
 Webb Hooper et al., 2011 [70] BRFSS subsample from Florida; April 2007 – January 2008 No difference between menthol and non-menthol smokers in past year quit attempts (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.81 to 1.15). Good
 Alexander et al., 2010 [25] TUS-CPS, 2006–2007 No difference between menthol and non-menthol smokers in the odds of making a quit attempt (AOR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.15). Good
 Cubbin et al., 2010 [29] NHIS-CCS, 2005 No differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers across all six gender-race/ethnicity interactions in predicted past year quit attempts. Good
 Hyland & Rivard, 2010 [41] COMMIT cessation trial; 1988–1993 No differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers in the odds of having made a quit attempt (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.72 to 1.15); similarly, no differences were found when analyzing subgroups of Black and White smokers. Good
 Stahre et al., 2010 [65] NHIS-CCS, 2005 No differences between menthol and non-menthol current smokers (AOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.36) or former smokers (AOR = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.74 to 2.26) in using any type of quit aid. Fair
 Fagan et al., 2007 [33] TUS-CPS; young adults age 18 to 30; 2003 No differences between menthol and non-menthol current smokers (AOR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.16), current daily smokers (AOR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.85 to 1.18), or non-daily smokers (AOR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.41) in the odds of past-year quit attempts. Moreover, no difference was found in the odds of past-year quit attempts between menthol and non-menthol non-daily smokers who reported an intention to quit (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI: 0.60 to 3.03). Fair
 Pletcher et al., 2006 [54] CARDIA; men and women age 18–30 at baseline; 1985–2000 Adjusting for various factors in 3 models, results across all models were similar in direction, significance, and magnitude and found no difference between menthol and non-menthol smokers in the likelihood of having made a quit attempt in the period preceding each interview (AOR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.56 to 1.06; most restrictive model, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, gender, social factors, and CPD at baseline). Good
 Schneller et al., 2020 [63]; Schneller, 2020 [64] PATH; 12 September 2013 to 14 December 2014 (Wave 1), 23 October 2014 to 30 October 2015 (Wave 2) No significant difference in the adjusted risk of menthol users reporting a past 12 month quit attempt compared to non-menthol users (RRR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.89–1.13, p = NS). Fair
Results of Mixed Significance in Quit Attempts
 Keeler et al., 2018 [45] Probability sampling of stratified clusters of U.S. households;
May/August 2006 to January 2007, and May/August 2010 to January 2011
Increase with Menthol Cigarette Use
Black menthol, compared to non-menthol, smokers were significantly more likely to report any past-year quit attempts (AOR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.67; p < 0.001).
No difference
No difference between White menthol and non-menthol smokers in the odds of past-year quit attempts (AOR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.01; p = NS).
Fair
 Keeler et al., 2017 [44] Probability sampling of stratified clusters of U.S. households;
2006 to 2007 and 2010 to 2011
Increase with Menthol Cigarette Use
Black menthol smokers were significantly more likely to report past-year quit attempts than non-menthol smokers (AOR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.61; p = 0.0002).
No difference
No difference between menthol and non-menthol smokers in past-year quit attempts (AOR = 0.99 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.04; p = 0.6690).
Similarly, no difference in the odds of past-year quit attempts between: White menthol and non-menthol smokers (AOR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.02; p = 0.2450); Asian menthol and non-menthol smokers (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.34; p = 0.6470); or Hispanic menthol and non-menthol smokers (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.30; p = 0.3540).
Fair
 Levy et al., 2011 [46] TUS-CPS;
current smokers and former smokers who quit between 3 months and 5 years prior to the survey interview;
2003, 2006/2007
Increase with Menthol Cigarette Use
Menthol, versus non-menthol, smokers who were smoking 1 year prior to the interview had a significantly higher likelihood of past year quit attempts (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.03; p < 0.001). Further controlling for nicotine dependence resulted in a nearly identical and significantly higher likelihood of a past year quit attempt for menthol, versus non-menthol, smokers who were smoking 1 year prior to the interview (AOR = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.03; p < 0.001).
Decrease with Menthol Cigarette Use
A third adjusted model reported significantly lower odds of past-year quit attempts for menthol, versus non-menthol, smokers (AOR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.98 to 0.98).
Good
  1. a Details of sampling and recruitment strategies for the data sources can be found in Table 3: Study, Data Set, and Sample Characteristics