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Table 3 Study, Data Set, and Sample Characteristics

From: Assessing the evidence on the differential impact of menthol versus non-menthol cigarette use on smoking cessation in the U.S. population: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First Author, Year National survey name Quality rating Location; Funding; Type of study Sampling / recruitment strategy; Data collection period Brief summary of inclusion criteria (including definition of “smoker”) Special population
Alexander et al., 2010 [25]
TUS-CPS
Good
National;
NR;
Cross-sectional
Stratified multistage probability sample, civilian non-institutionalized U.S. population; 2006–2007 Adult current smokers age ≥ 18 (smoke every day or some days). None
Azagba et al., 2019 [26]
NYTS
Fair
National;
NR;
Cross-sectional
A nationally representative sample of students enrolled in grades 6 through 12. The sampling universe consists of public and private school students in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Primary sampling units are selected with probability proportional to the student enrollment in the PSU but giving disproportionate weight to Black, Asian, and Hispanic students. All students present in a selected classroom on the day of the interview are selected for the study; 2017–2018 Middle school and high school students who were current cigarette users, defined as smoking at least one out of the past 30 days.
Smoking frequency was derived from the question “During the past 30 days, on how many days did you smoke cigarettes?” with the following possible answers: “0 days,” “1 or 2 days,” “3–5 days,” “6–9 days,” “10–19 days,” “20–29 days,” and “All 30 days.”
Middle school (grades 6 to 8) and high school (grades 9 to 12)
Blot et al., 2011 [27]
None
Fair
Southern states (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia);
Govt;
Prospective cohort
Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS), residents from southern U.S. states recruited from mailings to age, gender, and race-stratified random samples of the general population, predominately (~ 85%) at community health centers; March 2002 – September 2009 Adults age 40–79 living in U.S. southern states. Ever-smokers (≥100 lifetime cigs), continuing smokers (current smokers at baseline who reported smoking in the follow-up questionnaire), and former smokers at baseline. Respondents to the follow-up survey tended to be women, older, and of higher income and education level than non-respondents. Age 40–79 living in U.S. southern states
Cropsey et al., 2009 [28]
None
Fair
Virginia;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
Recruited through announcements and study flyers in prison housing units at a medium-maximum security female prison; June 2004–June 2006 Adult women age ≥ 18 who smoke ≥5 CPD, are not held in segregation from other prisoners and desired smoking cessation treatment. Female prisoners
Cubbin et al., 2010 [29]NHIS-CCS
Good
National;
NR;
Cross-sectional
Administered in 1992, 2000, 2005, and 2010 as a supplement to the NHIS that assesses issues related to cancer-related behaviors, screening, and risk assessment, including tobacco use and control; 2005 Adults age 25–64 who self-identified as Black, non-Hispanic/Latino, Hispanic/Latino, or White non-Hispanic, smoked ≥100 lifetime cigs and currently smoke every day (current smoker) or do not currently smoke (former smoker). None
D’Silva et al., 2012 [30]
None
Fair
Minnesota;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
People who called the ClearWay Minnesota line; September 2009 – July 2011, 7-month post-registration follow-up survey March 2010–February 2011 Adult smokers who registered for cessation counseling services. None
Delnevo et al., 2010; Delnevo et al., 2011 [31, 32], 2010
TUS-CPS
Good
National;
Govt;
Cross-sectional
Stratified multistage probability sample, civilian non-institutionalized U.S. population; 2003, 2006–2007 White, Black and Hispanic ever-smokers (≥100 lifetime cigs) age ≥ 18 who were current smokers (smoking “everyday” or “some days”) or former smokers (quit in the past 5 years) at the time of survey. None
Fagan et al., 2007 [33]
TUS-CPS
Fair
National;
Govt;
Cross-sectional
Stratified multistage probability sample, civilian non-institutionalized U.S. population; 2003 Young adult (18–30 years) current smokers who smoke every day (daily smokers) or some days (non-daily smokers). Young adults age 18–30
Faseru et al., 2013 [34]
None
Good
Kansas;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
Kick it at Swope-III (KIS-III trial), recruited at a community-based clinic serving a predominantly Black population; NR Black adult (≥18 years) “light smokers” (≤10 CPD) for ≥2 years who smoked on ≥25 days in the month prior to enrollment and were interested in quitting. Black light smokers (≤10 CPD)
Foulds et al., 2006 [35]
None
Good
New Jersey;
Govt & foundation;
Prospective cohort
Convenience sample of patients attempting to quit at a specialist tobacco dependence treatment outpatient clinic; 2001–2006 Smokers age 14–81 who, at their assessment, reported current smoking, specified a target quit date, and responded to the baseline night-smoking question. None, but included age ≥ 14
Fu et al., 2008 [36]
None
Good
5 VA centers in U.S.;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
Participants recruited from 5 VA medical centers, identified by VA pharmacy databases; February–October 2002 Adult smokers age ≥ 19 with a recent quit attempt that incorporated pharmacologic treatment. VA patients
Gandhi et al., 2009 [37]
None
Fair
New Jersey;
Govt & foundation;
Retrospective cohort
Consecutive patients at a specialist tobacco treatment outpatient clinic; January 2001–June 2005 Current smokers age 15–80 who set a quit date and attempted to quit smoking. None, but included age ≥ 15
Gubner et al., 2018 [38]
None
Good
National (USA);
National Institute on Drug Abuse (National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration Center for Tobacco Products;
Cross-sectional
Convenience sampling from each of 24 substance use disorder treatment centers (in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network), with self-administered surveys conducted during on-site visits; April to December 2015 Individuals with substance use disorders who self-reported as current smokers. Individuals with substance use disorders
Gundersen et al., 2009 [39]
NHIS-CCS
Good
National;
NR;
Cross-sectional
Administered in 1992, 2000, 2005, and 2010 as a supplement to the NHIS that assesses issues related to cancer-related behaviors, screening, and risk assessment, including tobacco use and control; 2005 Adult White, Black and Hispanic cig smokers (≥100 lifetime cigs) age ≥ 18 who ever attempted to quit smoking, do not currently use other tobacco products, and were current smokers (currently smoking “everyday” or “some days”) or former smokers (currently smoke “not at all”). None
Hyland & Rivard, 2010; Hyland et al., 2002 [40, 41]
None
Good
2 sites in each of: New Jersey, California, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Canada;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
COMMIT cessation trial; modified random-digit-dial method and geographic boundary screening used for the baseline prevalence survey to obtain representative samples of approximately 5400 HHs. Focused on communities with the highest prevalence of non-Whites; 1988–1993 Adult current smokers age 25–64 who reported whether their current brand was mentholated or not in 1988, and had a known smoking status in 1993. None
Kahende et al., 2011 [42]
TUS-CPS
Fair
National;
NR;
Cross-sectional
Stratified multistage probability sample, civilian non-institutionalized U.S. population; 2003, 2006–2007 Adults age ≥ 18 who smoked cigs during the past year. None
Kasza et al., 2014 [43]
ITC-4 (U.S. data only)
Fair
National; Foundation & Govt; Prospective cohort Random digit dialing to recruit adult smokers from the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Eight waves have been completed between 2002 and 2011. Only U.S. data are included in this Review; 2002–2011 Adult smokers (≥100 lifetime cigs and smoked ≥once in past 30 days). None
Keeler et al., 2017 [44]
TUS-CPS
Fair
National (USA);
Tobacco Related Disease Research Program;
Cross-sectional
Stratified multistage probability sample, civilian non-institutionalized U.S. population; 2006 to 2007 and 2010 to 2011 Adult recent active smokers age ≥ 18, defined as current smokers or former smokers who quit less than 12 months ago; current smokers defined as smoking 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and currently smoking every day (daily smokers) or some days (someday smokers); former smokers defined as individuals who smoked 100 cigarettes in their lifetime but currently do not smoke None
Keeler et al., 2018 [45]
TUS-CPS
Fair
National (USA);
Tobacco Related Disease Research Program;
Cross-sectional
Stratified multistage probability sample, civilian non-institutionalized U.S. population; May/August 2006 to January 2007, and May/August 2010 to January 2011 Adult recent active smokers age ≥ 18, to include current and former smokers who quit less than 12 months ago; current smokers, defined as having smoked 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and were currently smoking cigarettes every day or some days; former smokers defined as having smoked 100 cigarettes in their lifetime who currently did not smoke. Subsamples of African-American and White respondents, respectively.
Levy et al., 2011 [46]
TUS-CPS
Good
National;
Foundation;
Cross-sectional
Stratified multistage probability sample, civilian non-institutionalized U.S. population; 2003, 2006–2007 Adults age ≥ 18 who smoked ≥100 lifetime cigs and were currently smoking or quit between 3 months and 5 years prior to the interview. None
Lewis et al., 2014 [47]
None
Fair
National;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
Nielsen Homescan Panel which provides a record of consumer-packaged goods purchased by a large panel of nationally representative U.S. HHs;
January 2004–December 2009
Cig purchasers (made ≥1 cig purchase in 2004 and in 2005 or later and purchased ≥20 packs between 2004 and 2009) who resided in 1 of the top 75 Designated Market Areas in order to track anti-smoking advertising. Homeowners were age ≥ 18. None
Muench and Juliano, 2017 [48]
None
Good
Washington, DC metropolitan
area;
United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on
Drug Abuse, and the College of
Arts and Sciences at American University;
Laboratory-based smoking-choice study
Sample was recruited through flyers, word of mouth, and online advertisements, and participants were screened for eligibility by phone; NR Adults age ≥ 18 who smoked a ≥ 10 CPD for at least the past year, and with no intention or current attempt of quitting. None
Muscat et al., 2002 [49]
None
Fair
New York, District of Columbia, Pennsylvania;
Govt;
Case-control
Newly diagnosed cancer patients were identified from thoracic and other surgery schedules. Non-surgical patients recruited from oncology wards. Controls were selected randomly from general hospital admitting rosters; 1981–1999 Black or White current smokers (≥1 CPD for the past year) and former smokers (current smokers at one time but did not smoke ≥1 CPD for the preceding year). Cancer patients (and non-cancer control)
Nonnemaker et al., 2012 [50]
None
Good
7 communities in 5 states;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
American Legacy Longitudinal Tobacco Use Reduction Study (ALLTURS): School-based survey of middle and high school youth conducted in three waves in 83 schools in 7 communities in 5 states, initially selected for a quasi-experiment that included matched communities; 2000–2002 Youth age < 18 years who initiated smoking after baseline and before wave 3 and completed all 3 annual waves of the study. Youth
Okuyemi et al., 2003 [51]
None
Good
Kansas;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
Kick it at Swope trial (KIS), inner-city health center mostly serving a low-income Black population. Patients were invited to participate in a study on smoking among inner-city residents, not associated with a cessation program; August 2000–November 2000. Adult current smokers (≥10 CPD) age ≥ 18 who were Black, spoke English, had a home address with a working telephone, and were interested in quitting in the next 30 days. Blacks
Okuyemi et al., 2007 [52]
NoneGood
Kansas;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
Kick it at Swope trial (KIS), inner-city health center mostly serving a low-income Black population. Patients were invited to participate in a study on smoking among inner-city residents, not associated with a cessation program; March 2003–June 2004 Black adult (≥18 years) light smokers (≤10 CPD for ≥6 months and smoking on ≥25 of last 30 days) who were interested in setting a quit date within 14 days. Black light smokers (< 10 CPD)
Park, 2017 [53]
NATS
Good
National (USA);
NR;
Cross-sectional
Stratified, national, landline and cell phone survey of non-institutionalized adults age ≥ 18 across the 50 states and the District of Columbia; NATS 2012–2013 used a dual frame random digit dialing sample, drawn from landline and cell phone frames; October 2012 to July 2013 Adult current smokers age ≥ 18, defined as having smoked least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and currently smoked cigarettes every day or some days. None
Pletcher et al., 2006 [54]
None
Good
A major city in each of: Alabama, Illinois, Minnesota, California;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA), population-based observational study of men and women age 18–30 at baseline with follow-up data through year 19. Selected for equal representation in subgroups of race, gender, education, and age, recruited across 4 U.S. study sites; 1985–2000 Young adult (18–30 years) Black or European-American current smokers. Young adults age 18–30 at baseline
Rath et al., 2015 [55]
LYAC
Fair
National;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
GfK’s KnowledgePanel - an online panel of adults age 18 or older that covers both the online and offline populations in the U.S. Recruited via address-based sampling, a probability-based sampling method that provides statistically valid representation of the U.S. population, including cell-phone only households. Black and Hispanic young adults were oversampled; 2011–2012 Adults age 18–34 who completed the first 3 surveys and either remained current smokers across all 3 time points or initiated cig smoking at Time 2 and remained cig smokers at Time 3. Current smokers used ≥1cigs in the past 30 days. Young adults
Reitzel, 2011a [56]
None
Good
Texas;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
Project BREAK FREE, recruited from within the Houston metro area through local print and radio advertisements; 2005–2007 Adult Blacks who smoked ≥5 CPD for ≥12 months, had eCO ≥8 ppm, were willing to quit smoking in the next 2 weeks, had a working home telephone and a permanent address, and a 6th grade English literacy level. Blacks
Reitzel, 2011b [57]
None
Good
Texas;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
Project CARE recruited from within the Houston metro area through local print and radio advertisements; 2005–2007 Adult current smokers (≥5 CPD for the past year) age ≥ 21. None
Reitzel, 2011c; Reitzel et al., 2011 [58, 59]
None
Good
Texas;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
Project MOM, recruited from within Houston metropolitan area through a local health care system and via newspaper, radio, bus, and clinic advertisements;
2005–2007
Adult women in week 30–33 of pregnancy at time of enrollment. Smokers (≥1 CPD on average for the year) stopped smoking either during their pregnancy or within 2 months prior to becoming pregnant and wanted to remain quit postpartum. Women reporting a high-risk pregnancy were excluded. Pregnant women
Reitzel et al., 2013 [60]
None
Fair
Texas;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
Longitudinal study among community smokers; 2006–2007 Adult smokers age 18–65 (≥5 CPD for ≥12 months) who had a working telephone number, permanent home address, and 6th grade literacy level. Willing to quit smoking in the next week and did not participate in a smoking cessation program in the last 3 months. None
Rojewski et al., 2014 [61]
None
Good
Connecticut;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
Media and provider referrals; 2005–2009 Weight-concerned smokers (> 10 CPD for ≥1 year) with eCO ≥10 ppm, ≥1 prior quit attempt, and were enrolled in a cessation trial. None
Sawdey et al., 2020 [62]
NYTS
Good
National;
None;
Cross-sectional
A nationally representative sample of students enrolled in grades 6 through 12. The sampling universe consists of public and private school students in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Primary sampling units are selected with probability proportional to the student enrollment in the PSU but giving disproportionate weight to Black, Asian, and Hispanic students. All students present in a selected classroom on the day of the interview are selected for the study; 2011–2018 Youth (grades 6–12) current smokers that reported smoking a cigarette ≥1 day
in the past 30 days
Middle and high school students (grades 6–12)
Schneller et al., 2020; Schneller, 2020 [63, 64]
PATH
Fair
National;
PATH contract mechanism;
Cross-sectional
Nationally-representative survey of civilian, non-institutionalized US citizens, using addressed-based, probability sampling of households with adolescents. Data gathered in waves, beginning with Wave 1 (September 2013–December 2014) and having currently completed Wave 5 (2016–2017; data collection planned through 2024); 12 September 2013 to 14 December 2014 (Wave 1), 23 October 2014 to 30 October 2015 (Wave 2) Current adult cigarette smokers that have smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and smoke every day or somedays None
Stahre et al., 2010 [65]
NHIS-CCS
Fair
National;
Govt;
Cross-sectional
Administered in 1992, 2000, 2005, and 2010 as a supplement to the NHIS that assesses issues related to cancer-related behaviors, screening, and risk assessment, including tobacco use and control; 2005 Adult current and former smokers age ≥ 18 for whom menthol status was known. None
Steinberg et al., 2011 [66]
None
Good
New Jersey; None; Retrospective cohort Smokers intending to quit enrolled in a study for smoking cessation; 2006–2008 Adult smokers age 16–78 presenting for cessation treatment. None
Sulsky et al., 2014 [67]
NHIS, TUS-CPS
Good
National;
Industry;
Cross-sectional
Stratified multistage probability sample, civilian non-institutionalized U.S. population; 2005, 2010
TUS-CPS; 2010–2011
Adult current smokers (≥100 lifetime cigs) and former smokers (≥100 lifetime cigs who quit ≥1 year before survey). None
Thihalolipavan et al., 2014 [68]
None
Poor
New York;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
New York City Nicotine Patch and Gum Program (NPGP), a nicotine replacement therapy giveaway administered to smokers who phoned a toll-free quitline; 2012 Adult daily smokers in a nicotine replacement therapy giveaway. None
Trinidad et al., 2010 [69]
TUS-CPS
Good
National;
Govt & foundation;
Cross-sectional
Stratified multistage probability sample, civilian non-institutionalized U.S. population; 2003, 2006–2007 Adult ever smokers age 20–65, including current smokers (≥100 lifetime cigs and currently smoke every day or some days) and former smokers (≥100 lifetime cigs and currently smoke not at all). None
Webb Hooper et al., 2011 [70]
BRFSS
Good
Florida;
Govt;
Cross-sectional
BRFSS subsample from Florida; April 2007 – January 2008 Adult smokers age ≥ 18 (≥100 lifetime cigs and currently smoking on some days). None
Winhusen et al., 2013 [71]
None
Fair
National;
Govt;
Prospective cohort
Randomized trial examining substance use disorder treatment with smoking cessation treatment. Participants recruited from one of 12 nationwide outpatient treatment programs; Feb 2010-July 2012 Adult current smokers (≥7 CPD and eCO ≥8 ppm) enrolled in outpatient treatment for cocaine or methamphetamine addiction and are interested in smoking. Cocaine- or methamphetamine-dependent smokers.
  1. Abbreviations: ALLTURS American Legacy Longitudinal Tobacco Use Reduction Study, BRFSS Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CARDIA Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, eCO exhaled carbon monoxide, COMMIT Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation, CPD cigarettes per day, cigs cigarettes, Govt government, HH household, ITC-4 International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (U.S. data only), KIS-III Kick it at Swope III Trial, LYAC Legacy Young Adult Cohort, NATS National Adult Tobacco Survey, NHIS National Health Interview Survey, NHIS-CCS National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement, NPGP New York City Nicotine Patch and Gum Program, NR not reported, NYTS National Youth Tobacco Survey, ppm parts per million, SCCS Southern Community Cohort Study, TUS-CPS Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, VA Veterans Health Administration