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Table 1 Bivariable and multivariable GEE analysis of factors associated with inability to access services among PWUD

From: The impact of PSTD on service access among people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada

  Unadjusted Adjusted
Characteristic Odds Ratio (95% CI) p - value Odds Ratio (95% CI) p - value
PTSD
 (≥31 vs. < 31) 2.13 (1.44–3.15) < 0.001* 1.69 (1.12–2.55) < 0.0012*
Median Age
  (≥median vs. <median) 0.45 (0.30–0.67) < 0.001*
Gender
  (female vs. male) 1.01 (0.66–1.53) 0.971
  (gender minority vs. male) 1.61 (0.45–5.72) 0.464
Sexual Orientation
  (straight vs. others) 0.62 (0.38–1.01) 0.055 0.55 (0.33–0.92) 0.022*
Ethnicity
  (white vs. BIPOC)* 1.10 (0.74–1.63) 0.636
Homelessnessa
  (yes vs. no) 13.66 (8.96–20.83) < 0.001* 13.84 (8.96–21.36) < 0.001*
Recent Incarcerationa
  (yes vs. no) 5.06 (2.66–9.62) < 0.001*
Sex Work Involvementa
  (yes vs. no) 1.59 (0.88–2.86) 0.124
Overdosea
  (yes vs. no) 2.51 (1.59–3.98) < 0.001*
Employmenta
  (yes vs. no) 0.95 (0.62–1.45) 0.815
Alcohol Bingea
  (yes vs. no) 1.50 (0.94–2.40) 0.090
Daily Prescription Opioid Usea
  (yes vs. no) 0.85 (0.24–2.97) 0.800
Daily Heroin Usea
  (yes vs. no) 1.87 (1.26–2.76) 0.002*
Daily Crack Usea
  (yes vs. no) 0.54 (0.27–1.10) 0.088
Daily Cocaine Usea
  (yes vs. no) 0.70 (0.27–1.85) 0.478
Daily Meth Usea
  (yes vs. no) 2.09 (1.33–3.29) 0.001*
Cohort
  (ACCESS vs. VIDUS) 0.58 (0.39–0.88) 0.010*   
  1. a Behaviours refer to activities in the last 6 months
  2. *BIPOC refers to Black, Indigenous or other People of Colour