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Table 1 Sample characteristics by user group for the total survey sample

From: Use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other substances during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Europe: a survey on 36,000 European substance users

  Any substance users (n = 36,538) Alcohol users (n = 35,753) Tobacco users (n = 9816) Cannabis users (n = 3289) Other illegal drug users (n = 1961)
% (95% CI) or mean (95% CI)
Sex
 Female 51.6% (49.2, 54.0%) 52.1% (49.7%,54.6%) 46.6% (42.5, 50.7%) 37.8% (30.5, 45.0%) 36.0% (26.2, 45.8%)
 Male 47.8% (45.0, 50.5%) 47.2% (44.4, 50.0%) 52.1% (47.8, 56.5%) 59.9% (53.8, 65.9%) 61.8% (54.0, 69.5%)
 Other 0.6% (0.0, 4.4%) 0.7% (0.0, 4.5%) 1.3% (0.0, 7.6%) 2.4% (0.0, 12.1%) 2.3% (0.0, 14.2%)
Age group
 18–34 33.5% (30.4, 36.6%) 34.2% (31.0, 37.3%) 38.1% (33.1, 43.1%) 54.6% (48.0, 61.1%) 50.7% (41.8, 59.6%)
 35–54 43.4% (40.7, 46.1%) 43.6% (40.9, 46.4%) 42.4% (37.9, 46.8%) 32.5% (25.0, 40.0%) 35.4% (25.6, 45.2%)
 55+ 23.1% (20.1, 26.1%) 22.2% (19.1, 25.2%) 19.5% (14.6, 24.4%) 12.9% (4.4, 21.4%) 13.9% (2.9, 24.9%)
Education
 Low 10.6% (6.9, 14.2%) 9.1% (5.4, 12.9%) 15.5% (9.8, 21.3%) 15.2% (5.9, 24.5%) 15.6% (3.6, 27.5%)
 Middle 44.1% (41.2, 47.1%) 44.2% (41.1, 47.2%) 47.4% (42.7, 52.0%) 52.9% (46.0, 59.8%) 53.3% (44.2, 62.4%)
 High 45.3% (43.0, 47.7%) 46.7% (44.3, 49.1%) 37.1% (32.9, 41.3%) 31.9% (25.3, 38.6%) 31.1% (22.7, 39.6%)
Personal income
 Low 52.5% (49.8, 55.2%) 51.6% (48.8, 54.4%) 58.7% (54.6, 62.8%) 57.1% (50.6, 63.5%) 58.3% (49.8, 66.8%)
 Middle 24.9% (21.9, 27.9%) 25.1% (22.1, 28.1%) 22.7% (17.7, 27.8%) 24.3% (16.0, 32.5%) 21.4% (11.0, 31.8%)
 High 22.6% (19.5, 25.6%) 23.3% (20.2, 26.4%) 18.5% (13.1, 23.9%) 18.7% (10.3, 27.0%) 20.3% (9.6, 31.0%)
AUDIT-C sum score a
 Mean 4.5 (4.4, 4.5) 4.5 (4.4, 4.5) 5.2 (5.2, 5.3) 5.5 (5.4, 5.6) 5.7 (5.6, 5.8)
 Score = 8 or more 17.8% (14.2, 21.4%) 17.8% (14.2, 21.4%) 25.8% (19.9, 31.6%) 24.2% (15.4, 33.1%) 28.5% (17.4, 39.5%)
Restrictions in day-to-day life
 not at all 4.6% (0.4, 8.8%) 3.9% (0.0, 8.2%) 8.0% (1.1, 14.9%) 11.3% (0.6, 22.1%) 18.1% (4.8, 31.4%)
 to some degree 25.6% (22.1, 29.0%) 25.5% (21.9, 29.0%) 24.2% (18.5, 30.0%) 18.5% (9.2, 27.7%) 15.2% (3.9, 26.4%)
 to a substantial degree 33.1% (30.1, 36.0%) 33.5% (30.5, 36.5%) 32.0% (27.1, 36.9%) 31.1% (23.4, 38.8%) 32.1% (21.6, 42.7%)
 to a very high degree 36.8% (34.2, 39.3%) 37.1% (34.5, 39.7%) 35.8% (31.5, 40.1%) 39.1% (32.4, 45.8%) 34.6% (25.9, 43.3%)
Financial loss
 not at all 38.3% (35.6, 41.0%) 37.9% (35.1, 40.7%) 35.8% (31.1, 40.5%) 38.5% (31.1, 45.9%) 41.6% (32.0, 51.2%)
 to some degree 34.8% (31.9, 37.8%) 35.3% (32.3, 38.3%) 32.3% (27.4, 37.3%) 28.3% (20.5, 36.0%) 21.4% (11.8, 31.1%)
 to a substantial degree 15.3% (11.7, 18.8%) 15.3% (11.7, 18.9%) 17.4% (11.6, 23.2%) 16.7% (7.4, 26.0%) 20.0% (7.4, 32.5%)
 to a very high degree 11.6% (8.2, 15.0%) 11.5% (8.0, 15.0%) 14.5% (8.9, 20.1%) 16.5% (7.7, 25.3%) 17.0% (5.9, 28.1%)
Direct SARS-CoV-2 contact 11.6% (8.1, 15.1%) 11.6% (8.0, 15.1%) 11.1% (5.3, 16.9%) 11.7% (2.8, 20.6%) 9.9% (0.0, 20.9%)
  1. Note. 95% CI = 95% confidence intervals
  2. a Calculated for those who report any alcohol use: tobacco users, n = 9060; cannabis users, n = 3141; other illegal drug users, n = 1873