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Table 2 The unadjusted associations between serum methadone concentrations and the study variables in 83 participants. All the primary and secondary outcome variables were inserted one by one in linear mixed model

From: Subjective symptoms and serum methadone concentrations: what should guide dose adjustments in methadone maintenance treatment? A naturalistic cohort study from Norway

  β-coefficient 95% CIa p-value
Total SOWSb score − 3.9 − 7, − 9.1 0.011
 Anxiety − 4.3 − 7.6, − 1.1 0.009
 Yawning − 0.5 − 3.5, 2.5 0.739
 Perspiring − 0.4 − 4.1, 3.3 0.821
 Tearing − 1.5 − 4.1, 1.2 0.283
 Nose run − 1.7 − 4.9, 1.5 0.305
 Goose bumps − 2.1 − 5.5, 1.4 0.244
 Shaking − 2.7 − 5.7, 0.3 0.081
 Hot flushes − 2.6 − 6.2, 8.9 0.143
 Cold flushes − 3.2 − 7.1, 0.8 0.115
 Bone- and muscle ache − 4.9 − 8.4, − 1.4 0.007
 Restlessness − 5.2 − 9.6, − 0.8 0.021
 Nausea − 1.5 − 4.2, 1.2 0.272
 Vomitingd
 Muscle twitches − 0.9 − 4.2, 2.4 0.590
 Stomach cramps − 1.5 − 4.2, 1.1 0.263
 Feel like usingd
Subjective adverse effectsd
 Euphoriad
 Perspiring (as adverse effect) 1.4 − 3.0, 5.9 0.526
 Nausea (as adverse effect) 3.1 0.1, 6.1 0.040
 Concentration difficulties − 0.7 − 4.7, 3.3 0.731
 Feeling “brain fog” 1.5 − 2.2, 5.2 0.427
 Decreased sexual desire 2.2 − 2.4, 6.8 0.351
Self-reported substance use c 0.2 − 0.9, 1.3 0.754
 Heroin − 2 − 3.8, − 0.2 0.028
 Other opioidsd
 Benzodiazepines 0.6 − 3.7, 4.9 0.772
 Cannabis 4.7 − 0.5, 9.9 0.077
 Amphetamines − 0 − 3.0, 2.9 0.984
 Alcohol − 4.5 − 7.8, − 1.2 0.008
  1. a Confidence interval
  2. b Subjective opioid withdrawal symptoms
  3. c Frequent use (from daily to several times a month) of illicit drugs and alcohol during the month prior to surveys
  4. d The linear mixed model system was not able to analyze these variables due to scant data