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Table 1 Demographic and clinical data in the study participants and comparisons between the groups with and without reported subjective opioid withdrawal symptoms

From: Subjective symptoms and serum methadone concentrations: what should guide dose adjustments in methadone maintenance treatment? A naturalistic cohort study from Norway

  All participants Withdrawals No withdrawals  
N = 83 N = 45 N = 38 p-valuea
Gender, female/maleb 27/56 (33/67) 15/30 (56/54) 12/26 (44/46) 0.865
Age, yearsc 45 (9, 26–66) 45 (9, 26–62) 44 (10, 26–66) 0.493
Methadone dose, mg/dayc 97 (24, 20–170) 101 (24, 35–170) 92 (23, 20–150) 0.079
Methadone serum concentration, ng/mLc 374 (188, 74–1005) 347 (168, 113–1005) 405 (208, 74–998) 0.145
CDR,d (ng/mL)/(mg/day)c 4 (2, 1–11) 3 (2, 1–11) 4 (2, 1–9) 0.039
Time since last dose, hoursc 21 (8, 0–28) 22 (5, 1–28) 19 (10, 0–27) 0.199
Duration of opioid agonist treatmentc 9 (5, 1–20) 9 (5, 1–18) 9 (5, 1–20) 0.922
Direct observed treatment, day/weekc 4 (2, 1–7) 4 (2, 1–7) 3 (2, 1–6) 0.026
Self-reported substance use last monthb 73 (88) 41 (92) 32 (83) 0.187
Heroinb 10 (12) 5 (12) 5 (13) 0.971
Other opioidsb 5 (6) 3 (6) 2 (5) 0.819
Benzodiazepinesb 50 (62) 29 (64) 21 (55) 0.233
Cannabisb 55 (66) 30 (65) 25 (67) 0.828
Amphetamineb 26 (31) 15 (33) 11 (30) 0.789
Alcoholb 38 (46) 22 (49) 16 (42) 0.542
  1. aSignificance was tested using Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous and chi-square test for categorical variables
  2. bThe categorical variables are presented by n (%)
  3. cThe continuous variables are presented as means with standard deviations (SD) and ranges
  4. dConcentration-to-dose ratio