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Table 1 Translation procedure according to Wild and colleagues’ [45] guidelines

From: Investigating the factor structure of a translated recovery-orientation instrument in inpatient treatment for substance use disorder

Procedure Description
Preparations The literature was searched for Norwegian translations and the originator of RSA was informed about the research project
Forward translation RSA was translated from US English to Norwegian by two native Norwegian speakers with clinical and research experience in mental health and SUD
Revise The forward-translation was adapted to the Norwegian inpatient SUD treatment setting in terms of language, culture and organisation of health services
Back translation The forward-translation was back-translated from Norwegian to US English by a professional translator with no knowledge of the original instrument
Review The back-translation was reviewed and compared to the original instrument
Harmonization The authors discussed differences in the original- and back translated versions in terms of conceptual correspondence and adjusted the forward-translated version
External assessment Clinicians completed the instrument and commented on wording, concepts, understandability and relevance of the included items
Adjustment The translated version was adjusted according to feedback from the clinicians
External assessment and proofreading NGO-representatives commented on language, concepts, understandability, relevance of the instrument and proofread the instrument
Adjustment and finalisation The adjusted translation was finalised according to feedback from the NGO-representatives