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Table 1 Participant Sociodemographic and Pretreatment Characteristicsa

From: Examination of referral source and retention among women in residential substance use disorder treatment: a prospective follow-up study

  CJ CPS Nonmandated Mandated Total   
(N = 114) (N = 82) (N = 49) (N = 196) (N = 245)   Pairwisec
Characteristics M (SD) or N (%) M (SD) or N (%) M (SD) or N (%) M (SD) or N (%) M (SD) or N (%) Sign. test P group significance
Number of days in treatment 133.86 (79.43) 116.59 (65.59) 96.11 (72.09) 126.61 (74.25) 120.64 (74.67) F = 4.54 .012 CJ/NM; M/NM
Agee 32.89 (9.92) 30.33 (6.34) 33.76 (9.53) 31.82 (8.68) 32.21 (8.87) F = 2.97 .053
Race and ethnicity      χ2 = 5.7 .458
 Non-Hispanic White 19 (16.67) 17 (20.73) 14 (28.57) 36 (18.37) 50 (20.41)   
 Non-Hispanic Black 29 (25.44) 13 (15.85) 8 (16.33) 42 (21.43) 50 (20.41)   
 Hispanic 64 (56.14) 51 (62.2) 26 (53.06) 115 (58.67) 141 (57.55)   
 Other 2 (1.75) 1 (1.22) 1 (2.04) 3 (1.53) 4 (1.63)   
Children      χ2 = 10.87 < .001 CJ/CPS; CPS/NM
 Yes 97 (85.09) 81 (98.78) 42 (85.71) 178 (90.82) 220 (89.8)   
 No 17 (14.91) 1 (1.22) 7 (14.29) 18 (9.18) 25 (10.2)   
Housing      χ2 = 1.41 .49
 Homeless or housing unstable 97 (85.09) 65 (79.27) 38 (79.17) 162 (82.65) 200 (81.97)   
 Stable 17 (14.91) 17 (20.73) 10 (20.83) 34 (17.35) 45 (18.03)   
Education       χ2 = 3.95 .41
 Less than high school diploma 51 (44.74) 41 (50.00) 25 (51.02) 92 (46.94) 117 (47.76)   
 High school diploma or equivalent 33 (28.95) 25 (30.49) 9 (18.37) 58 (29.59) 67 (27.35)   
 Some post-high school 30 (26.32) 16 (19.51) 15 (30.61) 46 (23.47) 61 (24.9)   
Employment
 Full-time 11 (9.65) 14 (17.07) 9 (18.37) 25 (12.76) 34 (13.88)   
 Part-time 13 (11.40) 8 (9.76) 9 (18.37) 21 (10.71) 30 (12.24)   
 Not working 90 (78.95) 60 (73.17) 31 (63.27) 150 (76.53) 181 (73.88)   
Number of mental health diagnosesb       χ2 = 1.22 .542
 None 51 (44.74) 29 (37.18) 21 (44.68) 80 (41.67) 101 (42.26)   
 One or more 63 (55.26) 49 (62.82) 26 (55.32) 112 (58.33) 138 (57.74)   
Mental health symptomologyd
 Posttraumatic stress symptomse 14.96 (12.18) 19.00 (11.99) 21.84 (13.81) 16.65 (12.23) 17.69 (12.71) F = 5.91 .003 CJ/NM; M/NM
 Depression symptoms 3.87 (4.00) 5.79 (5.03) 7.47 (6.23) 4.67 (4.55) 5.23 (5.04) F = 10.20 < .001 CJ/NM; CPS/CJ; M/NM
 Stress symptomse 5.69 (4.53) 8.05 (4.85) 8.96 (4.51) 6.68 (4.80) 7.13 (4.82) F = 10.90 < .001 CJ/NM; CPS/CJ; M/NM
 Anxiety symptoms 4.53 (4.01) 6.26 (4.38) 7.96 (4.76) 5.25 (4.24) 5.79 (4.48) F = 11.69 < .001 CJ/NM; CPS/CJ; M/NM
Substance use disorder diagnosisb       χ2 = 6.86 < .001
 Alcohol use disorder 9 (7.89) 7 (8.97) 8 (17.02) 16 (8.33) 24 (10.04)   
 Substance use disorder 86 (75.44) 59 (75.64) 37 (78.72) 145 (75.52) 182 (76.15)   
 Both 19 (16.67) 12 (15.38) 2 (4.26) 31 (16.15%) 33 (13.81)   
  1. aTable consists of categorical and continuous variables by group (mandating agencies, mandated and nonmandated status). CJ = criminal justice; CPS = child protective services
  2. bFrequency missing (N = 6); two missing from mandated group and four from nonmandated group for each variable
  3. cPairwise between group significance (CJ = criminal justice; CPS = child protective services; M = mandated; NM = nonmandated)
  4. dMental health characteristics and stress scores reflect symptom severity ranges (higher scores represent increased severity)
  5. eSquare-root transformations were conducted for age, PTSD, and stress scores to reduce skewness and improve normality