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Table 1 Policy actions by seven commercial insurers and Medicaid-for-service for prescribing opioid analgesics by year, Michigan

From: Commercial and public payer opioid analgesic prescribing policies: a case study

Specific Action 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Total # payers implemented
LIMITATIONS on number days initial prescrpiton 8 4 4 7 11 22 27 83 8
PRIOR AUTHORIZATION on initial prescription 9 7 5 9 13 16 18 77 8
Formulary limitation 5 1 3 5 10 12 24 60 8
Registry of patients 11 4 6 6 6 7 18 58 8
Pharmacy safety review/step edit 4 6 6 9 6 14 12 57 8
PRIOR AUTHORIZATION for long-acting/extended release opioids 6 2 5 4 3 6 10 36 8
LIMITATIONS on providers 4 6 5 7 3 8 3 36 8
LIMITATIONS on number refills 6 2 3 2 0 10 13 36 7
LIMITATIONS on dosages within formulary 4 1 2 2 5 7 9 30 7
PRIOR AUTHORIZATIONS for refill prescription(s) 1 3 2 1 1 8 9 25 7
PRIOR AUTHORIZATIONS for higher potency opioids 2 1 2 1 1 5 9 25 8
Feedback to providers on opioid prescribing 2 2 0 3 0 1 1 9 3
Incentives to providers 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
Total 62 39 43 56 59 116 154 529