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Table 2 Logistic regression analysis of odds of unemployment at two years after release following heroin use sentence in Taiwan, 2011 (n = 9120)

From: Prison sentencing increases the risk of unemployment among illegal heroin users in Taiwan

Variable Un-adjusted odds-ratio Adjusted odds-ratiob VIFc
Estimate
(95% CI)
P value Estimate
(95% CI)
P value
Social demographyd
Gender
 Male 1.00   1.00   
 Female 1.02 (0.89–1.17) 0.758 0.75 (0.64–0.87) < 0.001 1.1
Age (years) at index datea
 18–24 1.00   1.00   
 25–44 0.74 (0.65–0.85) < 0.001 1.41 (1.17–1.70) < 0.001 2.2
  ≥ 45 1.13 (0.95–1.35) 0.155 1.55 (1.21–1.98) < 0.001 2.3
Type of residence
 Rural 1.00   1.00   
 Urban 0.91 (0.81–1.01) 0.087 0.91 (0.80–1.03) 0.131 1.0
Insurance premium at 2 years before index date
 With job salary 1.00   1.00   
 Without job salary 4.8 (4.23–5.45) < 0.001 6.65 (5.67–7.82) < 0.001 1.2
Education level
 Elementary 1.00     
 Junior high school 0.99 (0.85–1.14) 0.844 1.06 (0.91–1.25) 0.448 2.0
 Senior high school 0.73 (0.62–0.87) < 0.001 0.82 (0.68–1.00) 0.049 2.2
 College 0.73 (0.49–1.09) 0.122 0.82 (0.54–1.25) 0.358 1.1
Marital status
 Single 1.00   1.00   
 Married 1.18 (1.03–1.35) 0.019 1.06 (0.9–1.24) 0.500 1.2
 Divorced or widowed 1.52 (1.25–1.84) < 0.001 1.42 (1.13–1.78) 0.003 1.2
Drug use sentences and criminal recordd
Type of sentencing
 Deferred prosecution 1.00   1.00   
 Observation and rehabilitation 1.12 (0.99–1.28) 0.081 1.31 (1.13–1.52) < 0.001 1.6
 Compulsory rehabilitation 2.24 (1.94–2.59) < 0.001 1.87 (1.59–2.20) < 0.001 1.5
 Sentenced to prison 3.41 (1.21–9.65) 0.021 2.30 (1.97–2.65) < 0.001 1.0
Drug use criminal record
 0 1.00   1.00   
 1 0.86 (0.69–1.07) 0.121 0.88 (0.73–1.06) 0.171 2.3
 2 1.13 (0.94–1.37) 0.205 1.15 (0.93–1.4) 0.191 1.9
  ≥ 3 1.88 (1.59–2.23) < 0.001 1.90 (1.56–2.32) < 0.001 2.5
Mental diseases and comorbidityd
 Schizophrenia (Yes vs No) 0.80 (0.51–1.24) 0.322 0.86 (0.54–1.39) 0.542 1.1
 Depression (Yes vs No) 1.04 (0.87–1.25) 0.684 1.08 (0.87–1.34) 0.509 1.3
 Bipolar (Yes vs No) 1.21 (0.79–1.87) 0.381 1.33 (0.82–2.16) 0.242 1.1
Charlson comorbidity score
 0 1.00   1.00   
 1 0.94 (0.85–1.07) 0.115 0.90 (0.79–1.04) 0.153 1.2
 2 0.94 (0.82–1.08) 0.111 0.80 (0.66–0.96) 0.017 1.2
  ≥ 3 1.06 (0.91–1.24) 0.460 0.99 (0.82–1.18) 0.888 1.3
  1. a The index date was the date of release from prison, treatment centers or deferred prosecution
  2. b Global model fit Wald test x2 = 807.6, DF = 22, P < 0.001; R-square = 0.154
  3. c VIF Variance inflation factor
  4. dFor controlling potential confounders, social demography were collected from National Population Register Database, including gender, age, types of residence, insurance premium, education level and marital status [22, 30, 31] . Illicit drug use criminal record collected from National Police Agency in Taiwan [32, 33]. Mental diseases including schizophrenia, depressive disorders, bipolar disorders and general health condition (Charlson comorbidity score) were collected from NHIRD [31, 34, 35]