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Table 4 Comparison of Provider-Perceived Barriers to Buprenorphine vs. Extended-Release Naltrexone. Detailed Table Summary: Paired sample t-tests revealed statistically significantly different responses along only two barriers to prescribing buprenorphine versus extended-release naltrexone: concerns about diversion (paired t [33]=6.083, p = 0.000) and professional licensing board oversight (paired t [31]=3.311, p = 0.002)

From: A mixed-method comparison of physician-reported beliefs about and barriers to treatment with medications for opioid use disorder

Perceptions Buprenorphine Naltrexone t df Mean of the Difference Cohen’s d 95% Confidence Interval p
n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD) Lower Upper
Concerns about diversion 37 2.216 (1.084) 37 1.216
(0.630)
6.083 36 1.000 1.128 0.667 1.333 0.000*
Lack of patient interest 36 1.944 (1.068) 36 2.361
(1.046)
−1.838 35 − 0.417 0.394 − 0.877 0.044 0.075
Law enforcement oversight 37 1.757
(1.211)
27 1.270
(0.652)
2.991 36 0.486 0.501 0.157 0.816 0.005
Professional licensing board oversight 35 1.657
(1.056)
35 1.200
(0.584)
3.311 34 0.457 0.536 0.177 0.738 0.002*
MOUD patients would unfavorably affect my patient mix 33 1.394
(0.966)
33 1.212
(0.650)
1.359 32 0.182 0.221 −0.091 0.454 0.184
My co-workers do not support provision of MOUD in my practice 36 1.333
(0.894)
36 1.222
(0.591)
1.071 35 0.111 0.146 −0.099 0.322 0.291
Managers/ admin. do not support provision of MOUD in my practice 35 1.286
(0.869)
35 1.400
(0.946)
−0.702 34 −0.114 0.126 −0.445 0.217 0.487
Reimbursement rates for MOUD 33 1.879
(1.269)
33 2.424
(1.226)
−2.454 32 −0.545 0.437 −0.998 − 0.093 0.02
Insurance prior authorization requirements 37 2.378
(1.277)
37 2.784
(1.109)
−1.836 36 −0.405 0.339 −0.853 0.042 0.075
Insufficient training 35 1.371
(0.942)
35 1.571
(0.948)
−1.096 34 −0.200 0.212 −0.571 0.171 0.281
Insufficient time 36 1.778
(1.149)
36 1.611
(0.871)
0.784 35 0.167 0.164 −0.265 0.598 0.439
Insufficient staff support 35 1.914
(1.246)
35 1.771
(1.087)
0.776 34 0.143 0.122 −0.231 0.517 0.443
Insufficient experience 32 1.531
(1.016)
32 1.719
(0.991)
−0.882 31 −0.188 0.187 −0.621 0.246 0.385
Insufficient resources for patient psychosocial support within community or in my practice 35 1.857
(1.115)
35 1.657
(0.968)
1.125 34 0.200 0.192 −0.161 0.561 0.268
Insufficient resources for patient detoxification within the community or in my practice 34 1.706
(1.194)
34 1.971
(1.167)
−1.391 33 −0.265 0.224 −0.652 0.122 0.173
  1. Notes: MOUD medication for opioid use disorder. Questions asked about the MOUDs buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone were compared in these results using paired samples t-tests (alpha = 0.05, two-tailed level). * indicates significance once a Bonferroni Correction of α = .05/15 = .0033 was applied