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Table 2 Descriptive statistics for Socio-ecological Model levels and hookah consumption

From: Determinants of hookah smoking among men in the coffee houses: an application of socio-ecological approach

  Mean (SD) Once a week or less More than once a week Once per day More than once per day P-value
personal level
 Perceived sensitivity 19.98 (3.90) 12.1 ± 1.2 12.1 ± 1.2 12.4 ± 2.7 12.3 ± 2.6 0.73
 Perceived Severity 9.56 (2.78) 25.7 ± 2.7 24.3 ± 3.0 26.3 ± 3.7 25.8 ± 3.2 0.001
Inter-personal Level
 Perceived reward 23.60 (5.72) 32.3 ± 5.9 37.1 ± 4.4 31.7 ± 5.3 32.4 ± 5.1 < 0.001
Social level
 Social support 36.59 (6.28) 36.8 ± 4.0 34.9 ± 4.5 36.9 ± 6.0 37.4 ± 6.5 0.02
  1. *SEA Socio-ecological Approach