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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and their associations with frequency of hookah consumption among the participants (n = 266)

From: Determinants of hookah smoking among men in the coffee houses: an application of socio-ecological approach

  Mean (SD) Frequency of hookah consumption  
characteristics Once a week or less More than once a week Once per day More than once per day P-value
Age (years) 37.9 ± 10.96 30.4 ± 6.7 30.9 ± 5.1 26.43 ± 5.7 26.8 ± 4.8 < 0.001
Marital status
 Married 139 (52.3) 31 (22.2) 60 (43.2) 36 (25.9) 12 (8.6) 0.001
 Single 127 (47.7) 23 (18.1) 31 (24.4) 50 (39.4) 23 (18.1)
Education level
 Secondary school 18 (6.8) 0 (0) 7 (38.9) 8 (44.4) 3 (16.7) 0.031
 Diploma 127 (47.7) 22 (17.3) 38 (29.9) 50 (39.4) 17 (13.4)
 University 121 (45.5) 32 (26.4) 46 (38.0) 28 (23.1) 15 (12.4)
Employment status
 Employed 225 (84.6) 45 (20.0) 84 (37.3) 67 (29.8) 29 (12.9) 0.06
 Unemployed 41 (15.4) 9 (22.0) 7 (17.1) 19 (46.3) 6 (14.6)
Income (10 million Rials per month)
 Less than 1 54 (20.3) 20 (9.3) 22 (10.2) 6 (2.8) 5 (2.3.) 0.67
 1–2 131 (49.2) 39 (18.1) 55 (25.6) 14 (6.5) 16 (7.4)
 More than 2 42 (15.7) 16 (7.5) 17 (7.5) 5 (2.3) 0