|Intervention||Number of Sessions and length of the Protocol||Session 1 (Themes and Practices Taught)||Session 2 (Themes and Practices Taught)||Session 3 (Themes and Practices Taught)||Session 4 (Themes and Practices Taught)||Session 5 (Themes and Practices Taught)||Session 6 (Themes and Practices Taught)||Session 7 (Themes and Practices Taught)||Session 8 (Themes and Practices Taught)||Session 9 (Themes and Practices Taught)||Session 10 (Themes and Practices Taught)||Mechanisms Investigated||Moderators Investigated|
|Mindfulness Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP) ||8, 120-min group sessions||Automatic Pilot and Relapse. Primary practices: raisin exercise (mindful interaction with an ordinary object) and body scan meditation.||Awareness of Triggers and Craving. Primary practices: urge surfing and grounding meditation.||Mindfulness in Daily Life. Primary practices: mindfulness of breath and Stop Observe Breathe Expand Respond (SOBER space) introduction.||
Mindfulness in High-Risk Situations.|
Primary practices: open awareness and walking meditation.
|Acceptance and Skillful Action. Primary practices: SOBER space in difficult situations and mindful movement.||Seeing Thoughts as Thoughts. Primary practice: acknowledgment of thinking meditation.||Self-Care and Lifestyle Balance. Primary practice: loving-kindness meditation.||Social Support and Continuing Practice. Primary practice: concluding meditation (planting the seeds for continued mindfulness)||N/A||N/A||Impulsivity (+), craving (+), stress reactivity (+)||Anxiety (+), depression (+), gender (−)|
|Mindfulness Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) ||10, 120-min group sessions||
Mindfulness and the Automatic Habit of Addiction.|
Primary practice: chocolate exercise (mindful interaction with an ordinary object) and mindfulness of breath meditation.
|Mindful Reappraisal. Primary practice: the power of reappraisal.||Focus on Savoring. Primary practice: mindful savoring (open awareness meditation).||Seeing Through the Illusion of Craving. Primary practice: chocolate exercise (breaking down the elements of craving and noticing the fleeting nature of urges).||
Overcoming Craving and Coping with Stress.|
Primary practices: stress exposure and relaxation exercise and body scan meditation.
|Attachment, Aversion, and Acceptance. Primary practices: thought suppression exercise and acceptance of cravings.||The Impermanent Body. Primary practices: impermanent body meditation and walking meditation.||Relationships and Relapse. Primary practice: loving-kindness meditation.||Interdependence and Finding Meaning. Primary practice: interdependence meditation.||Recovery and the Road Ahead. Primary practice: visualization of future self exercise.||Craving (+), cue reactivity (+), pain intensity (+)||Attentional bias (+), affective state (+), late positive potential (+)|
|Mindful Awareness in Body-Oriented Therapy (MABT) [23, 24]||8, 90-min group sessions||Identify Body Sensations. Primary practice: body literacy.||Articulate Body Sensations. Primary practice: self-massage.||
Identifying and Attending to Internal Sensations.|
Primary practice: mindfulness of breath meditation.
|Softening of Tension. Primary practices: tissue softening exercise and internal body attention exercise.||Sustained Mindful Attention. Primary practice: maintaining awareness on specific areas of the body.||Shift in Understanding. Primary practice: noticing internal shifts.||Reappraisal. Primary practice: reappraisal based on experiential awareness.||Interoceptive Awareness and Everyday Life. Primary practice: embodied self- awareness.||N/A||N/A||Interoceptive awareness (+), mindfulness skills (−)||Symptomatic distress (−)|
|Mindfulness-Based Addiction Treatment (MBAT) [25, 26]||8, 120-min group sessions||Automatic Pilot. Primary practice: breathing space.||Barriers to Mindfulness. Primary practice: body scan.||Mindful Breathing. Primary practice: mindfulness of the breath.||The Arising and Passing Away of Thoughts. Primary practice: traditional sitting meditation.||Being With What Is. Scheduled “quit day.” Primary practice: mindful movement (e.g., yoga)||Thoughts Are Just Thoughts. Primary practice: open awareness.||Taking Care of Yourself. Primary practice: integrating pleasant activities into everyday life.||Maintaining Mindfulness Going Forward. Primary practice: continue to use the skills learned in future situations.||N/A||N/A||Tobacco dependence (+), withdrawal (−), craving (+)||Negative affect (+), stress (+)|
|Mindfulness Training for Smoking Cessation (MTS) [16, 27]||8, 90-min group sessions||Habituation. Primary practice: introduction to mindfulness||
Awareness of Triggers and Craving. Primary practice: Recognize, Accept,|
Investigate, and Note (RAIN) what cravings feel like as they arise practice.
|Working with Stress and Negative Emotions. Primary practice: loving-kindness meditation.||
Coping with Craving and Committing to Quit (“Quit Day”).|
Primary practice: urge surfing.
|Mindfulness in Everyday Life. Primary practices: awareness of breath and walking meditation.||Automatic Pilot. Primary practice: noting meditation.||Acceptance. Primary practice: how our current thoughts and beliefs plant the seeds for future emotional states.||Course Summary. Primary practice: how to continue down the path of mindfulness.||N/A||N/A||Craving (+), abstinence from tobacco (+)||Stress reactivity (+), positive/negative affect (−)|
|Moment-by- Moment in Women’s Recovery (MMWR) [17, 28, 29]||8, 90-min group sessions and 1, 4-h “retreat day”||Introduction to Mindfulness. Primary practice: meditation of triggers.||Bringing Awareness to Thoughts, Emotions, Body Sensations, and Actions. Primary practices: mindful eating practice and standing body scan.||The Role of Perceptions in Relapse. Primary practice: noting practice.||
Using Mindfulness to Deal with Negative Emotions.|
Primary practice: loving-kindness meditation.
|The Role of Guilt and Shame in Relapse. Primary practice: mindfulness of painful thoughts and emotions.||Mindful Communication. Primary practice: difficult communication meditation.||
Primary practices: a compilation of all of the formal practices taught throughout the course.
|Anger, Self- Violence, and Violence Towards Others. Primary practices: warning signs of anger and loving-kindness meditation.||Summary and Farewell. Primary practices: closing ritual and graduation ceremony.||N/A||Yes; Mindfulness (+), craving (+)||Yes; Affect (−), emotion regulation and distress tolerance (+)|
|Note: (+) = effect found, (−) = effect not found|