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Table 1 Overview of treatment protocols

From: Mindfulness-based programs for substance use disorders: a systematic review of manualized treatments

Intervention Number of Sessions and length of the Protocol Session 1 (Themes and Practices Taught) Session 2 (Themes and Practices Taught) Session 3 (Themes and Practices Taught) Session 4 (Themes and Practices Taught) Session 5 (Themes and Practices Taught) Session 6 (Themes and Practices Taught) Session 7 (Themes and Practices Taught) Session 8 (Themes and Practices Taught) Session 9 (Themes and Practices Taught) Session 10 (Themes and Practices Taught) Mechanisms Investigated Moderators Investigated
Mindfulness Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP) [13] 8, 120-min group sessions Automatic Pilot and Relapse. Primary practices: raisin exercise (mindful interaction with an ordinary object) and body scan meditation. Awareness of Triggers and Craving. Primary practices: urge surfing and grounding meditation. Mindfulness in Daily Life. Primary practices: mindfulness of breath and Stop Observe Breathe Expand Respond (SOBER space) introduction. Mindfulness in High-Risk Situations.
Primary practices: open awareness and walking meditation.
Acceptance and Skillful Action. Primary practices: SOBER space in difficult situations and mindful movement. Seeing Thoughts as Thoughts. Primary practice: acknowledgment of thinking meditation. Self-Care and Lifestyle Balance. Primary practice: loving-kindness meditation. Social Support and Continuing Practice. Primary practice: concluding meditation (planting the seeds for continued mindfulness) N/A N/A Impulsivity (+), craving (+), stress reactivity (+) Anxiety (+), depression (+), gender (−)
Mindfulness Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) [22] 10, 120-min group sessions Mindfulness and the Automatic Habit of Addiction.
Primary practice: chocolate exercise (mindful interaction with an ordinary object) and mindfulness of breath meditation.
Mindful Reappraisal. Primary practice: the power of reappraisal. Focus on Savoring. Primary practice: mindful savoring (open awareness meditation). Seeing Through the Illusion of Craving. Primary practice: chocolate exercise (breaking down the elements of craving and noticing the fleeting nature of urges). Overcoming Craving and Coping with Stress.
Primary practices: stress exposure and relaxation exercise and body scan meditation.
Attachment, Aversion, and Acceptance. Primary practices: thought suppression exercise and acceptance of cravings. The Impermanent Body. Primary practices: impermanent body meditation and walking meditation. Relationships and Relapse. Primary practice: loving-kindness meditation. Interdependence and Finding Meaning. Primary practice: interdependence meditation. Recovery and the Road Ahead. Primary practice: visualization of future self exercise. Craving (+), cue reactivity (+), pain intensity (+) Attentional bias (+), affective state (+), late positive potential (+)
Mindful Awareness in Body-Oriented Therapy (MABT) [23, 24] 8, 90-min group sessions Identify Body Sensations. Primary practice: body literacy. Articulate Body Sensations. Primary practice: self-massage. Identifying and Attending to Internal Sensations.
Primary practice: mindfulness of breath meditation.
Softening of Tension. Primary practices: tissue softening exercise and internal body attention exercise. Sustained Mindful Attention. Primary practice: maintaining awareness on specific areas of the body. Shift in Understanding. Primary practice: noticing internal shifts. Reappraisal. Primary practice: reappraisal based on experiential awareness. Interoceptive Awareness and Everyday Life. Primary practice: embodied self- awareness. N/A N/A Interoceptive awareness (+), mindfulness skills (−) Symptomatic distress (−)
Mindfulness-Based Addiction Treatment (MBAT) [25, 26] 8, 120-min group sessions Automatic Pilot. Primary practice: breathing space. Barriers to Mindfulness. Primary practice: body scan. Mindful Breathing. Primary practice: mindfulness of the breath. The Arising and Passing Away of Thoughts. Primary practice: traditional sitting meditation. Being With What Is. Scheduled “quit day.” Primary practice: mindful movement (e.g., yoga) Thoughts Are Just Thoughts. Primary practice: open awareness. Taking Care of Yourself. Primary practice: integrating pleasant activities into everyday life. Maintaining Mindfulness Going Forward. Primary practice: continue to use the skills learned in future situations. N/A N/A Tobacco dependence (+), withdrawal (−), craving (+) Negative affect (+), stress (+)
Mindfulness Training for Smoking Cessation (MTS) [16, 27] 8, 90-min group sessions Habituation. Primary practice: introduction to mindfulness Awareness of Triggers and Craving. Primary practice: Recognize, Accept,
Investigate, and Note (RAIN) what cravings feel like as they arise practice.
Working with Stress and Negative Emotions. Primary practice: loving-kindness meditation. Coping with Craving and Committing to Quit (“Quit Day”).
Primary practice: urge surfing.
Mindfulness in Everyday Life. Primary practices: awareness of breath and walking meditation. Automatic Pilot. Primary practice: noting meditation. Acceptance. Primary practice: how our current thoughts and beliefs plant the seeds for future emotional states. Course Summary. Primary practice: how to continue down the path of mindfulness. N/A N/A Craving (+), abstinence from tobacco (+) Stress reactivity (+), positive/negative affect (−)
Moment-by- Moment in Women’s Recovery (MMWR) [17, 28, 29] 8, 90-min group sessions and 1, 4-h “retreat day” Introduction to Mindfulness. Primary practice: meditation of triggers. Bringing Awareness to Thoughts, Emotions, Body Sensations, and Actions. Primary practices: mindful eating practice and standing body scan. The Role of Perceptions in Relapse. Primary practice: noting practice. Using Mindfulness to Deal with Negative Emotions.
Primary practice: loving-kindness meditation.
The Role of Guilt and Shame in Relapse. Primary practice: mindfulness of painful thoughts and emotions. Mindful Communication. Primary practice: difficult communication meditation. Retreat Day.
Primary practices: a compilation of all of the formal practices taught throughout the course.
Anger, Self- Violence, and Violence Towards Others. Primary practices: warning signs of anger and loving-kindness meditation. Summary and Farewell. Primary practices: closing ritual and graduation ceremony. N/A Yes; Mindfulness (+), craving (+) Yes; Affect (−), emotion regulation and distress tolerance (+)
Note: (+) = effect found, (−) = effect not found