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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analyses

From: Alcohol use disorders and the risk of progression of liver disease in people with hepatitis C virus infection – a systematic review

Reference Country Type of study Years of Study N
(N of outcome)
Measurement of AUD
(N of people with AUD)
Outcome Risk Relationsa
Adjusted yes/no
Alavi et al., 2018 [29] Australia Cohort study based on record linkage 1995–2013 (1995–2012 HCV notifications) 82,526 (2559) Non-liver-related hospitalization due to alcohol use disorders 2001–2013 (prior to outcome)
(N = 14,797)
First-time hospitalization (or death, if no prior hospitalization) due to decompensated cirrhosis HR: 3.68
(3.38–4.00)
y
Alavi et al., 2018 [29] Canada Cohort study based on record linkage 1995–2012 (1995–2011 HCV notifications) 55,873 (2443) Non-liver-related hospitalization due to alcohol use disorders 2001–2012 (prior to outcome)
(N = 11,078)
First-time hospitalization (or death, if no prior hospitalization) due to decompensated cirrhosis HR: 1.92
(1.76–2.10)
y
Alavi et al., 2018 [29]b Scotland Cohort study based on record linkage 1995–2014 (1995–2013 HCV notifications) 30,746 (1020) Non-liver-related hospitalization due to alcohol use disorders 2001–2014 (prior to outcome)
(N = 8757)
First-time hospitalization (or death, if no prior hospitalization) due to decompensated cirrhosis HR: 3.88
(3.42–4.40)
y
Harris et al., 2001 [19] USA Retrospective cohort study. 1968–1980 836 (142) Loss of friends, family or job because of drinking; admitted to ever having a problem with alcoholism, medical records; sustained use of > 80 g/day
(N = 149)
Liver cirrhosis OR: 4.0
(2.1–7.7)
y
Lim et al., 2014 [30] USA Case-control study 2002–2010 997 (27) ICD-9 diagnosis for alcohol dependence/abuse recorded
(N = 376)
Medical record–confirmed decompensated cirrhosis OR: 2.46
(1.13–5.37)
n
Marcellin et al., 2014 [31] France Case-control study Not specified 304 (77) Alcohol-related problems (physician’s report)
(N = 41)
Advanced fibrosis OR: 3.06
(1.42–6.60)
y
Marcellin et al., 2015 [32] France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK Case-control study 2006 1333 (438) Chronic alcoholism (physician’s judgement)
(N = 55)
Advanced fibrosis OR: 2.51
(1.24–5.08)
y
McDonald et al., 2010 [33]b Scotland Cohort study based on record linkage 1996–2006 15,878 (481) Hospitalization due to alcohol use disorders or 100% alcohol-attributable disease 1996–2006 (prior to outcome)
(N = 274)
First-time hospitalizations (or death, if no prior hospitalization) due to decompensated cirrhosis HR: 5.50
(4.56–6.63)
y
Nilsson et al., 2016 [34] e Sweden Case-control analysis at baseline of a cohort study 2001–2010 284 (67 ascites, 15 variceal-bleeding, 9 encephalopathy) Alcoholism or overconsumption of alcohol as stated in the medical records
(N = 114)
Decompensated cirrhosis OR: 3.24
(1.77–8.99)e
n
Nilsson et al., 2016 [34] c Sweden Cohort study 2001–2010 (average follow-up 4.3 years) 284 (174) Alcoholism or overconsumption of alcohol as stated in the medical records
(N = 114)
Death (majority due to liver disease) HR: 1.83
(1.34–2.51)
yd
Schwarzinger et al., 2017 [8] France Retrospective cohort study based on record linkage 2008–2013 97,347 (15,630) Hospitalization due to alcohol use disorders or 100% alcohol-attributable disease
(N = 28,101)
First record of decompensated cirrhosis hospitalization OR: 6.20
(5.85–6.58)
y
Schwarzinger et al., 2017 [8] France Retrospective cohort study based on record linkage 2008–2013 97,347 (6677) Hospitalization due to alcohol use disorders or 100% alcohol-attributable disease
(N = 28,101)
Liver death (without liver transplantation) OR: 7.63
(8.30–7.97)
y
Sultanik et al., 2016 [35] France Retrospective cohort study 2006–2015 341 (136) Either ICD-10 codes describing mental and behavioural states due to alcohol use disorders or 100% alcohol attributable Hepatocellular carcinoma (35%) and/or end-stage liver disease HR: 1.47
(1.02–2.13)
y
Verbaan et al., 1998 [36] Sweden Case control 1991–1997 99 (20) Use of > 80 g/day for at least 5 years; 92% of these were registered at Department of Alcohol Diseases, University Hospital, Malmö
(N = 45)
Cirrhosis OR: 11.8
(1.9–72.1)
y
Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska et al., 2004 [37] Poland Cohort study 1988–2001 77 (22) History of alcohol abuse (physician’s judgment)
(N = 32)
Advanced fibrosis OR: 10.00
(2.29–43.70)
n
  1. Highlighted areas were included in the main outcome variable: decompensated liver cirrhosis
  2. HR Hazards Ratio, OR Odds Ratio
  3. a Risk relations are either Relative Risks, Hazard Ratios or Odds Ratios
  4. b The samples of the two studies [19, 33] overlap, with the methodology being slightly different (see definition of AUD). Only Alavi et al., 2018 [29] was included in the main quantitative meta-analysis
  5. c This outcome was not included into the second meta-analysis, as it was all-cause mortality, which is not a liver-specific outcome
  6. d The HR was estimated based on the methodology of Hamling et al. [26]
  7. e The combined OR was estimated by weighting the OR for ascites (OR: 4.39 (2.45–7.85)), variceal-bleeding (OR: 0.53(0.16–1.69)) and encephalopathy (OR: 5.50 (1.12–2.95)) by weighting the excess risks by the probability of risk occurrence