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Table 4 Multivariate association between hookah use patterns and binge drinking and marijuana use among those reporting past 12 months alcohol and marijuana use

From: Hookah use patterns, social influence and associated other substance use among a sample of New York City public university students

   Past Year Binge drinking   Past Year Marijuana use
N AOR (95% CI) N AOR (95% CI)
Exclusive hookah use vs. Never hookah use (ref) 978 1.76 (1.02, 3.04)* 1641 2.34 (1.44, 3.78)**
Dual/poly hookah use vs. Never hookah use (ref) 880 7.30 (3.87, 12.79)** 1513 6.65 (3.65, 12.10)**
Dual/poly hookah use vs. Exclusive hookah use (ref) 268 5.29 (2.52, 11.08)** 308 3.24 (1.68, 6.26)**
  1. Adjusted for age, gender, race, income, current employment status, close friends use of hookah, and perceived Social Disapproval of Hookah Smoking
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01