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Table 3 Multivariate association of the sociodemographic and social influence factors by hookah use patterns (never, exclusive and Dual/Poly hookah users) (n = 1759)a

From: Hookah use patterns, social influence and associated other substance use among a sample of New York City public university students

  Exclusive hookah use
vs. Never hookah use (ref) (N = 1538)
Dual/Poly hookah use
vs. Never hookah use (ref) (N = 1415)
Dual/Poly hookah use vs.
Exclusive hookah use (ref) (N = 305)
  AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Age
 18–19 1.00 1.00 1.00
 20–21 0.97 (0.57, 1.63) 0.87 (0.41, 1.84) 1.08 (0.47, 2.52)
 22–23 1.50 (0.90, 2.50) 0.81 (0.36, 1.82) 0.53 (0.23, 1.25)
 24–25 1.04 (0.56, 1.96) 1.08 (0.40, 2.88) 1.80 (0.60, 5.42)
Gender
 Male 0.84 (0.57, 1.96) 0.90 (0.52, 1.57) 0.97 (0.52, 1.79)
 Female 1.00 1.00 1.00
Race/ethnicity
 NH-White 1.00 1.00 1.00
 NH-Blackb 0.61 (0.29, 1.26) N/Ab N/Ab
 Hispanic/Latino 1.56 (0.30, 1.06) 0.97 (0.43, 2.19) 0.54 (0.23, 1.25)
 Asian/ NI/PI 0.56 (0.30, 1.06) 0.53 (0.25, 1.13) 1.20 (0.49, 2.95)
 Caribbean/West Indian 1.27 (0.69, 2.34) 0.35 (0.14, 0.88)* 0.23 (0.08, 0.67)**
 Other 0.75 (0.37, 1.51) 0.64 (0.27, 1.55) 1.04 (0.39, 2.78)
Currently employed
 Yes 1.85 (1.27, 2.69)** 1.34 (0.79, 2.29) 0.68 (0.37, 1.28)
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00
Household income
  < $20,000 0.87 (0.56, 1.37) 0.60 (0.30, 1.21) 0.72 (0.33, 1.57)
 $20,000 - $49,999 1.00 1.00 1.00
  > $50,000 1.05 (0.67, 1.67) 1.25 (0.65, 2.40) 1.11 (0.55, 2.22)
Perceived Social Disapproval of Hookah Smokingc
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 1.72 (1.18, 2.52)** 4.04 (2.27, 7.19)** 3.14 (1.64, 6.02)**
Close Friends use of hookahd
 0–2 1.00 1.00 1.00
 3–4 3.89 (2.47, 6.12)** 5.11 (2.67, 9.80)** 1.53 (0.70, 3.33)
 5 or more 12.43 (7.96, 19.39)** 6.65 (3.27, 13.54)** 0.52 (0.26, 1.05)
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, NH non-Hispanic, NI native indians, PI pacific islander
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01
  3. aThis analysis excludes exclusive tobacco users and former hookah smokers
  4. bThis category is not included in the analyses due to the small number (n = 1)
  5. cPerceived social disapproval of hookah smoking was ascertained as a binary variable by assessing participants’ agreement to the statement “People who are important to you believe that you should not smoke hookah”
  6. dClose friends was defined as the friends that you spend time with on a regular basis