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Table 2 Hookah use social context and alcohol and marijuana use by hookah use patterns (never, exclusive and dual/poly hookah users) (N = 2460)

From: Hookah use patterns, social influence and associated other substance use among a sample of New York City public university students

  Total
(N = 2460)
Never Users
(n = 1447)
Current users (n = 312)
Exclusive use
(n = 219)
Dual/Poly use
(n = 93)
P-Valuea
Perceived Disapproval of Hookah Smokingb      0.008
 Yes 1576 (63.5) 1076 (67.3) 102 (7.0) 28 (1.7)  
 No 865 (35.7) 363 (42.2) 116 (13.9) 65 (7.2)  
Close friends use of hookahc      0.042
 0–2 1637 (65.9) 1086 (65.7) 70 (4.6) 35 (2.2)  
 3–4 317 (13.0) 146 (45.8) 48 (15.5) 28 (8.7)  
 5 322 (13.6) 92 (28.3) 96 (31.3) 28 (8.0)  
Past Year Binge Drinkingd      0.0001
 No 1352 (55.2) 707 (51.8) 151 (11.9) 47 (3.5)  
 Yes 279 (12.0) 88 (33.2) 32 (12.2) 38 (12.0)  
Past Year Marijuana use      0.0001
 No 2005 (81.0) 1322 (65.2) 163 (8.8) 46 (2.3)  
 Yes 413 (17.4) 101 (25.0) 55 (13.4) 44 (10.1)  
  1. Row percentages do not add up to 100% as the category of ever hookah users and current other tobacco users (n = 658) and missing responses (n = 43) are not included in the table
  2. aChi-square test between exclusive hookah users vs. dual/poly hookah users
  3. bDisapproval by people who are important to the respondent “People who are important to you believe that you should not smoke hookah”
  4. cClose friends use of hookah was defined as the friends that you spend time with on a regular basis
  5. dBinge drinking is reported among students with reported past 12-month history of alcohol drinking