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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of the sample by hookah use patterns (never, exclusive and Dual/Poly hookah users) (N = 2460)

From: Hookah use patterns, social influence and associated other substance use among a sample of New York City public university students

  Total
(N = 2460)
Never Users (n = 1447) Current users (n = 312)
Exclusive use
(n = 219)
Dual/Poly use
(n = 93)
P-valuea
Age      0.234
 18–19 444 (17.4) 294 (65.8) 41 (10.0) 19 (4.5)  
 20–21 957 (37.1) 575 (60.0) 74 (8.0) 37 (3.6)  
 22–23 663 (27.8) 371 (55.1) 75 (12.2) 22 (3.1)  
 24–25 396 (17.7) 207 (51.5) 29 (7.5) 15 (3.9)  
Gender      0.551
 Male 962 (42.9) 583 (60.3) 75 (8.5) 36 (3.5)  
 Female 1477 (56.4) 852 (56.5) 143 (10.3) 53 (3.6)  
Race/ethnicity      0.005
 NH-White 432 (18.7) 216 (49.9) 33 (8.2) 25 (5.9)  
 NH-Black 297 (12.8) 207 (68.8) 19 (6.5) 1 (0.5)  
 Hispanic/Latino 429 (18.6) 223 (51.9) 57 (14.0) 23 (5.2)  
 Asian/ NI/PI 624 (22.2) 424 (66.9) 29 (4.9) 18 (2.8)  
 Caribbean/West Indian 355 (14.7) 193 (53.7) 52 (15.0) 9 (2.4)  
 Other 308 (12.4) 178 (59.1) 26 (8.8) 17 (4.6)  
Household income      0.136
  < $20,000 700 (28.9) 455 (64.3) 65 (10.0) 19 (2.6)  
 $20,000 - $49,999 747 (30.0) 448 (57.9) 72 (10.8) 33 (4.4)  
  > $50,000 728 (28.6) 349 (47.7) 66 (9.2) 35 (4.7)  
Currently employed      0.189
 No 1066 (42.7) 716 (66.6) 71 (6.8) 37 (3.3)  
 Yes 1354 (55.7) 711 (51.8) 145 (11.6) 55 (4.0)  
  1. NH, Non-Hispanic;
  2. Values are n(%)
  3. Row percentages do not add up to 100% as the category of ever hookah users and current other tobacco users (n = 658) and missing responses (n = 43) are not included in the table
  4. aChi-square test between exclusive hookah users vs. dual/poly hookah users