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Table 1 Characteristics of fatally-injured drivers who died within 1 h of crashing, by drug test results, aggregated prevalence from 2007 to 2017

From: Positive drug test trends in fatally-injured drivers in the United States from 2007 to 2017

Demographic Characteristicse Tested Positive Tested Negative Otherd Total Chi-square test
n (%a) n (%a) n (%a) n (%b) χ2, d.f., p-value
28,756 (28.1) 49,384 (48.3) 24,081 (23.6) 102,221 (100.0)  
Age 1126.3,6,<.0001
 16–20 2433 (25.7) 4876 (51.4) 2176 (22.9) 9485 (9.3)  
 21–44 15,893 (31.6) 23,275 (46.3) 11,107 (22.1) 50,275 (49.2)  
 45–64 8241 (27.7) 14,317 (48.2) 7150 (24.1) 29,708 (29.1)  
 65+ 2189 (17.2) 6916 (54.2) 3648 (28.6) 12,753 (12.5)  
Sex 21.6,2,<.0001
 Male 22,609 (28.4) 38,470 (48.3) 18,526 (23.3) 79,627 (77.9)  
 Female 6142 (27.2) 10,904 (48.3) 5548 (24.6) 22,594 (22.1)  
Race 405.9,6,<.0001
 Non-Hispanic White 20,572 (30.2) 31,891 (46.8) 15,747 (23.1) 68,210 (72.3)  
 Non-Hispanic Black 3011 (26.6) 5535 (48.8) 2795 (24.7) 11,341 (12.0)  
 Hispanic 2760 (24.3) 6292 (55.5) 2292 (20.2) 11,344 (12.0)  
 Other Race 855 (24.8) 1884 (54.7) 706 (20.5) 3445 (3.7)  
Died at Scene/En Route 23.8,6, <.01
 Not Applicablec 5039 (28.0) 8843 (49.1) 4134 (23.0) 18,016 (17.6)  
 Died at Scene 23,420 (28.1) 40,105 (48.2) 19,774 (23.7) 83,299 (81.5)  
 Died En Route 289 (33.2) 415 (47.7) 166 (19.1) 870 (0.9)  
Blood Alcohol Concentration 867.2,6,<.0001
 0 15,601 (30.5) 30,879 (60.4) 4326 (9.1) 51,106 (58.8)  
 0.001–0.079 1978 (41.6) 2279 (47.9) 502 (10.6) 4759 (5.5)  
  ≥ 0.08 10,742 (34.6) 15,872 (51.1) 4430 (14.3) 31,044 (35.7)  
Month of Death 163.2,22,<.0001
 1 2069 (28.1) 3614 (49.1) 1675 (22.8) 7358 (7.2)  
 2 1896 (28.5) 3299 (49.6) 1461 (22.0) 6656 (6.5)  
 3 2241 (28.1) 3972 (49.7) 1773 (22.2) 7986 (7.8)  
 4 2440 (28.8) 4157 (49.1) 1876 (22.1) 8473 (8.3)  
 5 2641 (28.7) 4518 (49.1) 2041 (22.2) 9200 (9.0)  
 6 2609 (28.8) 4362 (48.1) 2103 (23.2) 9074 (8.9)  
 7 2712 (28.2) 4697 (48.8) 2209 (23.0) 9618 (9.4)  
 8 2694 (27.7) 4767 (49.0) 2266 (23.3) 9727 (9.5)  
 9 2562 (28.5) 4264 (47.5) 2149 (23.9) 8975 (8.8)  
 10 2476 (27.5) 4334 (48.2) 2179 (24.2) 8989 (8.8)  
 11 2281 (27.8) 3796 (46.2) 2134 (26.0) 8211 (8.0)  
 12 2135 (26.8) 3604 (45.3) 2215 (27.8) 7954 (7.8)  
  1. a % = row percentage
  2. b % = column percentage
  3. c Not Applicable is used for victims dying at locations other than the scene or en route (e.g. Hospital, at home, etc.)
  4. d The other group included fatally-injured drivers whose test results were unknown or not reported and drivers who were not given drug tests
  5. e Chi-Square tests were performed to assess significant differences in demographic characteristics among groups and all differences were significant (p < 0.01)