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Table 7 Directed content analysis of the defining characteristics of culturally-safe care

From: Conceptualizing patient-centered care for substance use disorder treatment: findings from a systematic scoping review

Defining Characteristics a

Representative Example of Content Coded

Adapting care plans to meet culture-specific preferences (n = 7)

“Akeela House developed a model that incorporated traditional Alaska Native cultural lifestyles into the therapeutic community treatment approach. This was termed a “Spirit Camp Model” and consisted of four major elements: (1) spirit groups, (2) cultural awareness activities, (3) urban orientation, and (4) individual counseling. To implement these components, additional Alaska Native counselors were hired.” [136]

Inquiring about health and healing practices of the client (n = 2)

“The nurse engages with Charlie to prioritize his needs. He/she discusses his living situation and how he sees the future. The nurse does an assessment in keeping with the principles of cultural safety and cultural competence – he/she begins by asking Charlie if there is anything that he/she should know about him (e.g. beliefs about health and healing practices) to assist with his treatment plan and before making referrals etc.” [59]

Reflecting on personal beliefs, assumptions and biases (n = 2)

“The concept of cultural safety takes critical inquiry a step further by requiring nurses to reflect on issues of racialization, institutionalized discrimination, culturalism, and health and health-care inequities.” [59]

  1. aA total of 8 references defined culturally-safe care. Coded categories were not mutually exclusive such that a reference might have defined the principle of patient-centered care at more than one category. Bracketed numbers represent the number of unique references coded at each category
  2. bReferences coded at this category [6, 40, 45, 47, 136,137,138]
  3. cReferences coded at this category [59, 138]
  4. dReferences coded at this category [45, 59]