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Table 1 Extracted characteristics of eligible publications, including the target population, concept and context

From: Conceptualizing patient-centered care for substance use disorder treatment: findings from a systematic scoping review

Publication Characteristics Number of references Percentage of total references
(n = 149)  
Publication Year:
  < 2000 17 11.4
 2000–2004 12 8.1
 2005–2009 44 29.5
 2010–2014 35 23.5
 2015-Present 41 27.5
Publication Type:
 Empirical Quantitative Study 74 49.7
 Empirical Qualitative Study 25 16.8
 Empirical Mixed-Methods 3 2.0
 Empirical Review 5 3.4
 Report 25 16.8
 Clinical Practice Guideline 17 11.4
Publication Location:
 Africa 1 0.7
 Asia 2 1.3
 Australia 8 5.4
 Europe 37 24.8
 North America 100 67.1
 South America 1 0.7
Publication Language:
 English 146 98.0
 French 3 2.0
Population Sampled or Targeted:
 Adult clients with substance-related disorders 96 64.4
 Youth clients with substance-related disorders 21 14.1
 Health care providers delivering substance use disorder treatment 27 18.1
 Both clients and health care providers 5 3.4
Primary Substance Used or Targeted:
 Alcohol 23 15.4
 Cannabis 7 4.7
 Opioids 17 11.4
 Stimulants 4 2.7
 Tobacco 13 8.7
 Poly-substance a 6 4.0
 Dual diagnosis b 19 12.8
 People receiving addiction treatment in general c 60 40.3
Health Care Setting: d
 Inpatient 28 18.8
 Outpatient 99 66.4
 Inpatient & Outpatient 22 14.8
Type of Addiction Treatment: e
 Pharmacological 7 4.7
 Psychosocial 99 66.4
 Psychosocial & Pharmacological 33 22.1
 Not specified 10 6.7
Patient-Centered Care Principles (not mutually exclusive categories):
 Holistic care 35 23.5
 Individualized care 46 30.9
 Shared decision-making 54 36.2
 Therapeutic alliance 109 73.1
 Trauma-informed care 9 6.0
 Culturally-safe care 8 5.4
 More than one principle described 63 42.3
 All four PCC principles described 7 4.7
  1. aPoly-substance use included references that targeted people using more than one substance category (e.g., alcohol, opioids and stimulants) or people using injection drugs (e.g., opioids or stimulants)
  2. bDual diagnosis included references that targeted people with diagnoses for substance-related disorders and mental health conditions (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use)
  3. cNot a targeted substance category included references that were primarily based on convenience samples of people receiving inpatient or outpatient treatment for substance use. Therefore the samples were a mix of people with problematic licit and illicit substance use
  4. dInpatient settings included hospitals or residential addiction-specific treatment centers. Outpatient settings included general primary care or addiction specific outpatient programs (e.g., opioid agonist treatment clinics)
  5. ePharmacological treatment included any medication-based substitute interventions (e.g., methadone maintenance treatment, nicotine replacement therapy). Psychosocial treatment included any behavioural treatments (e.g., cognitive behavioural therapy, contingency management, strengths-based treatment). When a combination of behavioural and medication-assisted interventions was used, the reference was classified as using a combined approach. For the 10 references where the type of treatment was not specified, 4 references were guidelines written about general approaches for the delivery of addiction treatment, and therefore, could be considered applicable to both psychosocial and pharmacological interventions. The remaining 6 references generally described addiction treatment as delivered in residential settings or primary care based settings, without specifying the particular treatments delivered