Skip to main content


Table 1 Characteristics of IDU and NIDU Interventions

From: HIV prevention intervention for substance users: a review of the literature

  Sample Size Sociodemographic Characteristics Intervention Setting Intervention Type Theoretical Foundations Dose/Length Effects
IDU Interventions
 Copenhaver et al. (2007) [16] 226 51% Male; 68% Caucasian, 18% Black, 13% Hispanic, 1% American Indian Substance use treatment clinic in CT. (APT Foundation, Inc.) Group-based Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model (IMB) 4 sessions; 50 min per session Increased HIV risk reduction knowledge, safe sexual behavior knowledge, and motivational outcomes
 Vera et al., (2012) [17] 584 100% female sex workers Project offices and mobile units in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico Individual Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). 1 session; 60 min Null effects on sexual risk and drug outcomes for interventions vs. control
 Booth et al. (1998) [14] 3743 71% Male; 37% Black, 34% White, 23% Latino & 6% Native American Community and project offices Individual National AIDS Demonstration Research (NADR) program and Cooperative Agreement (CA) for AIDS Community Based Outreach/Intervention 2 sessions; length unspecified Reduced drug injection
 Booth et al. (2011) [15] 623 76% Male; 73% Caucasian, 8% African American, 10% multi-racial and 9% Latino/Hispanic ethnicity Residential Detoxification Centers Individual Counseling and Education Model Two 30 min sessions & one 45 min session Decreased days injecting, use of unclean syringes, sharing cottons/cookers/rinse water and sharing the drug solution; but no differences between intervention groups
 Tobin et al. (2011) [17] 227 60% male; 86% African-American, Group setting within the community Group-based and Individual Social Influence Theory 7 sessions; length unspecified Decreased use of unclean needle, cooker and cotton for injection and splitting drugs
 Mihailovic et al. (2015) [19] 227 55% male; 85% African-American Project office in community Group-based and individual Informational and counseling model 7 sessions over 18 months Increased conversation about HIV prevention among substance users
 Goswami et al. (2014) [20] 3349 100% male; 100% Asian Medical clinic in two states of India individual Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessment (IBBA) 2 rounds over 6 years Increased safe injecting practices and safe sex behavior
 Simmons et al. (2015) [21] 1123 73% male; 27% female Project offices in Philadelphia and Chiang Mai Group-based Educational and counseling model Session number unspecified; 30 months in length Decreased injection risk behaviors and increased diffusion of HIV information
 Des Jarlais et al. (2014) [22] 7132 82% male; 19% white; 33% African-American; 48% Hispanic Beth Israel Medical Center in New York individual Educational and counseling model 1 session; unspecified length Mostly null effects; decreased unprotected sex
NIDU Interventions
 Nydegger et al. (2013) [28] 143 66% male; 45% Hispanic Court-mandated outpatient drug education classes Group-based Implementation Intentions model 1 session; 60 min Increased condom use implementation intentions
 Tross et al. (2008) [30] 384 100% female; 58% white, 24% African-American Substance use treatment facility Group-based Safer Sex Skills Building (SSB) model 5 sessions; 90 min per session Decreased unprotected vaginal or anal sex occasions
 Calsyn et al. (2013) [23] 66 100% male; 42% African-American; 27% Hispanic; 18% white Substance use treatment facility Group-based Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model 5 sessions; 90 min per session Decreased frequency of unprotected sex; reduced number of sexual partners
 Kurtz et al. (2013) [31] 515 100% MSM; 48% white; 26% Hispanic; 21% African-American Academic--Field offices (2) in South Florida Group-based and individual Psychological Empowerment Theory 4 sessions; 120 min per session No differences in sexual risk or drug risk behavior between intervention groups
 Mansergh et al. (2010) [24] 1686 100% MSM; 40% white; 31% African-American; 19% Hispanic Health Centers Group-based Cognitive Behavioral model (CBT) 6 sessions; 120 min per session Decreased frequency of unprotected sex; reductions in sex while using drugs
 McMahon et al. (2001) [25] 149 100% male; 59% African-American; 33% white Substance use treatment facility (VA) Group-based Cognitive Behavioral Model (CBT) 4 sessions; 120 min per session Mostly null effects; increased unprotected sex in the intervention group
 McMahon et al. (2013) [26] 660 (330 couples) 50% Male; 50% Female; Women only: 52% Hispanic, 34% African-American Academic--Field office in South Bronx Couple-based & individual NIDA Community-Based Outreach model; Social- Cognitive Theory, Information-Motivation-Behavior Skills model, Stages-of-Change model, Theory of Gender and Power 2 sessions; length unspecified Reduced frequency of unprotected sex; reduced numbers of sexual partners; Reduced HIV incidence
 Mimiaga et al. (2012) [27] 16 100% MSM; 62.5% white Health Center—Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, in Boston, MA. Individual Behavioral Activation (BA) model 10 sessions; 50-min per session Reduction in frequency of unprotected sex; reductions in frequency of sex while using drugs
 Herrmann et al. (2013) [29] 56 71.5% male; 85.5% white Academic--Substance use treatment trials Individual Not specified 1 session; 50 min Increased HIV knowledge
 Surratt et al. (2014) [32] 597 100% female; 100% African-American Project field office in Miami Group-based and individual Strengths-based case management (SBCM) with Professional-Only (PO) or Professional-Peer (PP) 5 sessions over 8 weeks Decreased HIV risk behavior and increased service utilization outcomes