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Table 1 Levels of suicide prevention proposed by WHO [2]

From: Mental health care providers' suggestions for suicide prevention among people with substance use disorders in South Africa: a qualitative study

Level of approach Description
Universal Target the general population and focus on health promotion, through strategies such as: reducing access to means; improving access to mental health care; and reducing harmful substance use.
Selective Target vulnerable groups through strategies such as training gatekeepers to identify warning signs and establishing services such as helplines.
Indicated Target specific high-risk individuals, like PWSUDs, by improving access to mental health care, improving identification and management of suicidal behaviour, offering community support, and increasing training and education for health care professionals working with suicidal patients.