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Table 3 Factors associated with substance use in the past 12 months among university students

From: Risk and protective factors for substance use among Iranian university students: a national study

Predictors Substance Categories
  Alcohol Cigarette/Hookah Hard drugs Medications
  aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
 Low level of religious beliefs 1.976** (1.74–2.23) 1.39* (1.22–1.51) 1.24* (1.01–1.51) 1.02 (0.97–1.2)
 Low self-esteem 0.723* (0.58–0.89) 0.64* (0.54–0.76) 1.00 (0.71–1.43) 0.79 (0.68–0.94)
 Stress and Psychological pressure 0.76 (0.62–0.91) 0.79 (0.67–0.92) 1.65*(2.63–4.96) 0.17 (0.87–1.18)
 Attention seeking 0.89 (0.72–1.11) 0.92 (0.79–1.06) 1.02 (0.72–1.44) 0.78 (0.66–0.92)
 Sensation seeking 0.89 (1.02–1.52) 1.30* (1.14–1.43) 1.49* (1.08–2.05) 1.23* (0.88–1.53)
 Depression and anxiety 1.36** (1.08–1.72) 1.30* (CI = 1.11–1.52) 0.92 (0.63–1.35) 1.68*8 (1.41–2.02)
 Individual’s positive attitude towards substance abuse 2.59** (2.07–3.24) 3.08** (2.63–4.96) 3.62** (2.63–4.96) 1.57* (1.29–1.93)
 Anger and aggression 1.89** (1.56–2.30) 1.76** (1.53–2.03) 1.63* (1.20–2.22) 1.19* (1.02–1.40)
Low level of intimacy between the family members 0.96 (0.8–1.15) 1.12 (1.03–1.42) 0.99 (0.85–1.51) 1.03 (0.95–1.25)
 Family members’ cigarette/hookah use 0.48 (0.34–0.63) 7.52* (4.97–11.36) 4.33** (1.73–10.86) 2.34** (1.45–3.77)
 Family members’ alcohol use 30.52** (12.27–75.86) 2.24* (1.02–4.88) 7.05** (2.10–23.57) 0.06 (0.00–0.12)
 Family members’ drug use 2.86* (0.98–8.31) 2.71** (CI = 1.16–6.30) 12.07** (2.88–50.72) 5.03** (2.12–11.95)
 Family members’ prescribed medications use 1.09 (0.92–1.22) 1.70* (= 1.28–2.83) 0.66 (0.41–0.90) 2.83* (1.69–4.75)
 Parent’s positive attitude towards substance use 1.51** (1.31–1.72) 1.34** (1.13–1.57) 0.65 (0.50–0.85) 1.73* (1.41–2.05)
 Peer’s positive attitude toward substance use 1.08 (0.9–1.24) 1.23* (1.08–1.40) 0.76 (0.56–1.01) 0.93 (0.79–1.07)
 Peers’ drug use 3.21** (2.50–4.12) 2.77** (2.22–3.46) 3.15** (2.29–4.31) 1.26* (0.99–1.60)
 Perceived prevalence of substance use among students 1.07 (0.89–1.29) 0.95 (0.81–1.07) 3.15** (2.29–4.31) 1.20* (1.06–1.35)
 Negative attitude toward the university 1.54** (1.22–1.95) 1.4* (1.17–1.68) 1.56* (1.08–2.31) 1.01 (0.85–1.20)
 Perceived availability to illegal drugs 0.98 (0.85–1.11) 1.05 (0.92–1.14) 1.28* (1.03–1.60) 1.18* (1.06–1.3)
  1. aOR Adjusted Odds Ratio; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01