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Table 2 Characteristics of user and non-user students according to predictor variables

From: Risk and protective factors for substance use among Iranian university students: a national study

Predictors Substance Categories
  Alcohol Cigarette/Hookah Hard drugs Medications
  Last year user Non user Last year user Non user Last year user Non user Last year user Non user
  N = 577 N (%) N = 6753 N (%) N = 1459 N (%) N = 5403 N (%) N = 193 N (%) N = 7137 N (%) N = 807 N (%) N = 6523 N (%)
 Family members’ cigarette/hookah use 253 (43.8%) 1612 (23.9%) 600 (41.12%) 1114 (18.97%) 92 (47.7%) 1114 (15.60%) 297 (36.8%) 1114 (17.07%)
 Family members’ alcohol use 132 (22.9%) 211 (3.1%) 169 (11.58%) 153 (2.6%) 53 (27.5%) 153 (2.14%) 70 (8.7%) 153 (2.34%)
 Family members’ drug use 144 (25%) 197 (2.9%) 116 (7.59%) 148 (2.52%) 41 (21.2%) 148 (2.07%) 70 (8.7%) 148 (2.26%)
 Family members’ prescribed medications use 144 (25%) 831 (12.3%) 298 (20.42) 586 (9.98%) 56 (29.01%) 586 (8.21%) 207 (25.7%) 586 (8.98%)
 Peers’ drug use 245 (42.5%) 579 (8.6%) 399 (27.34%) 399 (6.79%) 142 (73.57%) 399 (5.59%) 163 (20.2%) 399 (6.11%)
Predictors Substance Categories
  Alcohol Cigarette/Hookah Hard drugs Medications
  Last year user Mean (SD) Non user Mean (SD) Last year user Mean (SD) Non user Mean (SD) Last year user Mean (SD) Non user Mean (SD) Last year user Mean (SD) Non user Mean (SD)
 Low level of religious beliefs 2.45 (0.92) 1.61(0.67) 2.08 (0.63) 1.64 (0.70) 2.46 (0.96) 1.62 (0.69) 1.91 (0.85) 1.64 (0.70)
 self-esteem 2.08 (0.63) 2.97 (0.81) 2.08 (0.63) 2.94 (0.62) 2.06 (0.62) 2.31 (0.68) 2.08 (0.62) 2.12 (0.63)
 Stress and Psychological pressure 2.94 (0.69) 2.91 (0.65) 2.96 (0.67) 2.92 (0.65) 2.89 (0.73) 2.92 (0.65) 3.04 (0.64) 2.92 (0.65)
 Attention seeking 2.28 (0.60) 2.13 (0.60) 2.22 (0.57) 2.13 (0.58) 2.43 (0.66) 2.13 (0.58) 2.15 (0.56) 2.13 (0.58)
 Sensation seeking 3.01 (0.59) 2.76 (0.58) 2.97 (0.56) 2.47 (0.51) 3.09 (0.61) 2.77 (0.57) 2.91 (0.59) 2.77 (0.57)
 Depression and anxiety 2.70 (0.63) 2.45 (0.60) 2.78 (0.60) 2.48 (0.60) 2.76 (0.67) 2.48 (0.60) 2.74 (0.60) 2.48 (0.60)
 Individual’s positive attitude towards substance abuse 1.95 (0.72) 1.30 (0.74) 1.76 (0.68) 1.33 (0.73) 2.37 (0.81) 1.33 (0.73) 1.60 (0.80) 1.33 (0.73)
 Anger and aggression 2.09 (0.62) 1.66 (0.53) 1.99 (0.59) 1.70 (0.54) 2.29 (0.66) 1.70 (0.54) 1.92 (0.63) 1.70 (0.54)
Low level of intimacy between the family members 1.89 (0.66) 1.67 (0.57) 1.87 (0.65) 1.69 (0.57) 2.02 (0.79) 1.69 (0.57) 1.87 (0.64) 1.69 (0.57)
 Parent’s positive attitude towards substance use 1.64 (0.76) 1.28 (0.73) 1.54 (0.70) 1.29 (0.72) 1.87 (0.99) 1.29 (0.72) 1.40 (0.75) 1.29 (0.72)
 Peer’s positive attitude toward substance use 2.05 (0.75) 1.50 (0.79) 1.93 (0.72) 1.53 (0.78) 2.32 (0.85) 1.53 (0.78) 1.76 (0.82) 1.53 (0.78)
 Perceived prevalence of substance use among students 2.06 (0.70) 1.89 (0.71) 1.97 (0.70) 1.90 (0.66) 2.31 (0.72) 1.9 (0.70) 2.06 (0.67) 1.90 (0.70)
 Negative attitude toward the university 2.98 (0.50) 2.69 (0.52) 2.92 (0.51) 2.72 (0.52) 2.97 (0.52) 2.72 (0.52) 2.86 (0.51) 2.72 (0.52)
 Perceived availability to illegal drugs 2.59 (0.85) 2.47 (0.88) 2.58 (0.82) 2.48 (0.87) 2.84 (0.82) 2.48 (0.87) 2.69 (0.81) 2.48 (0.87)