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Table 4 Bivariate and multivariate GEE analyses of factors associated with engaging in nonmedical prescription opioid use among older participants (n = 757)

From: An age-based analysis of nonmedical prescription opioid use among people who use illegal drugs in Vancouver, Canada

Characteristica Unadjusted Adjusted
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
p - value Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
p - value
Age (per year younger) 1.03 (1.10–1.04) < 0.001 0.99 (0.97–1.00) 0.120
Any cocaine useb, c 1.53 (1.18–1.99) 0.001  
Any crack useb, c 1.42 (1.12–1.81) 0.004  
Any crystal meth useb, c 2.95 (2.25–3.88) < 0.001 1.97 (1.46–2.66) < 0.001
Any heroin useb, c 3.81 (2.90–4.99) < 0.001 2.79 (2.08–3.74) < 0.001
Any non-fatal overdoseb, c 3.09 (2.12–4.48) < 0.001 1.76 (1.20–2.60) 0.004
Binge drug useb, c 1.71 (1.37–2.14) < 0.001  
Caucasian ancestry 1.20 (0.90–1.60) 0.225  
Difficulty accessing servicesb, d 2.11 (1.65–2.69) < 0.001 1.74 (1.32–2.29) < 0.001
Drug dealingb 2.75 (2.10–3.58) < 0.001 1.87 (1.40–2.49) < 0.001
Female 0.97 (0.73–1.31) 0.864  
Homelessb 2.05 (1.50–2.79) < 0.001  
Incarcerationb 2.28 (1.47–3.54) < 0.001 1.55 (0.98–2.44) 0.061
Regular employmentb 0.78 (0.60–1.00) 0.055  
Sex workb 2.05 (1.41–2.98) < 0.001 1.49 (1.00–2.22) 0.049
  1. a. Comparison is yes vs. no unless otherwise specified
  2. b. Refers to behaviours, activities, and experiences in the last six months
  3. c. Includes injection and non-injection use
  4. d. Includes health and social services