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Table 3 Bivariate and multivariate GEE analyses of factors associated with engaging in nonmedical prescription opioid use among younger participants (n = 405)

From: An age-based analysis of nonmedical prescription opioid use among people who use illegal drugs in Vancouver, Canada

Characteristica Unadjusted Adjusted
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
p - value Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
p - value
Age (per year younger) 1.18 (1.12–1.25) < 0.001 1.12 (1.05–1.19) < 0.001
Any cocaine useb, c 1.68 (1.18–2.39) 0.004 1.31 (0.88–1.95) 0.181
Any crack useb, c 2.16 (1.53–3.05) < 0.001 1.56 (1.06–2.30) 0.023
Any crystal meth useb, c 2.06 (1.42–2.98) < 0.001  
Any heroin useb, c 4.82 (3.34–6.96) < 0.001 3.12 (2.08–4.68) < 0.001
Any non-fatal overdoseb, c 2.24 (1.61–3.12) < 0.001 1.43 (0.97–2.10) 0.070
Binge drug useb, c 2.36 (1.76–3.15) < 0.001 1.41 (1.00–1.97) 0.049
Caucasian ancestry 1.24 (0.85–1.80) 0.269  
Difficulty accessing servicesb, d 1.70 (1.27–2.27) < 0.001 1.47 (1.04–2.09) 0.030
Drug dealingb 2.76 (2.03–3.75) < 0.001 2.22 (1.58–3.13) < 0.001
Female 0.91 (0.61–1.36) 0.662  
Homelessb 1.59 (1.16–2.17) 0.004  
Incarcerationb 1.32 (0.88–1.99) 0.177  
Regular employmentb 1.23 (0.92–1.64) 0.168  
Sex workb 2.11 (1.35–3.29) < 0.001  
  1. a. Comparison is yes vs. no unless otherwise specified
  2. b. Refers to behaviours, activities, and experiences in the last six months
  3. c. Includes injection and non-injection use
  4. d. Includes health and social services