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Table 6 Percentage of correct ALPHA answers according to educational frequency

From: Impact of anti-doping education and doping control experience on anti-doping knowledge in Japanese university athletes: a cross-sectional study

  ALPHA question content Education (frequency)
No   Non-educated
(n = 561)
Once
(n = 344)
More than once
(n = 238)
   Correct % (n %) Correct % (n %) Correct % (n %)
1 What is the philosophy behind anti-doping? 72.97 83.40 74.54 85.20 78.65 89.90
  a. To restrict the pharmaceutical industry’s access to athletes c. To protect the spirit of sport       
  b. To hold athletes to a higher standard than non-athletes d. To promote discipline among athletes       
2 What is the purpose of the World Anti-Doping Code? 40.51 46.30 46.28 52.90 47.77 54.60
  a. To protect athletes’ fundamental right to participate in doping-free sports c. To ensure harmonious and effective content anti-doping program at international level       
  b. To promote health and fairness and equality for athletes d. All of the above       
3 What is the Prohibited List? 63.60 72.70 67.37 77.00 67.63 77.30
  a. The list of doctors who are not allowed to work with athletes because of doping sanctions c. The list of substances and methods that are prohibited in competition and out of competition       
  b. The list of athletes that have been banned from competition d. The list of support personnel who are not allowed to work with athletes because of doping sanctions       
4 What are the side effects of using anabolic steroids? 25.90 29.60 24.41 27.90 29.75 34.00
  a. Men with breasts and women with deep voices c. Violent mood swings       
  b. Liver and heart failure d. All of the above       
5 What does TUE stand for? 61.07 68.30 60.80 69.50 64.65 73.90
  a. Team Update Exemption c. Therapeutic Use Exemption       
  b. Therapeutic Use Enhancement d. Technical Use Exchange       
6 How can an athlete with a medical condition decide whether to take a medication? 65.62 75.00 62.82 71.80 67.28 76.90
  a. Athletes can take any medication for medicinal purposes c. The athlete should determine the need for the medication and seek a TUE       
  b. The medication is permitted if the medical condition would hinder performance in competition d. The medication is permitted if it is prescribed by a doctor       
7 Who is responsible for the substances found in an athlete’s body? 35.87 41.00 28.96 33.10 32.37 37.00
  a. The athlete c. The coach       
  b. The doctor d. The person who provided the substance       
8 What condition allows an athlete to refuse to be tested? 76.90 87.90 74.80 85.50 78.65 89.90
  a. Family commitments c. Academic obligations       
  b. Busy schedules d. Athletes cannot refuse testing       
9 When must an athlete be notified of an upcoming test? 45.06 51.50 46.81 53.50 50.74 58.00
  a. 1 month prior c. 24 h prior       
  b. 7 days prior d. No advance notice is required       
10 When do athletes have to tell their National Anti-Doping Organization where they will be living, training and competing? 39.02 44.60 36.92 42.20 35.70 40.80
  a. Athletes are not required to do this c. During any year when the Olympics are being held       
  b. When they are in a Registered Testing Pool (RTP) d. All athletes must do this       
11 What are the athlete’s right when a positive test is returned? 46.02 52.60 42.26 48.30 46.28 52.90
  a. The right to have the B sample analyzed c. The right to copies of the laboratory documentation package       
  b. The right to attend the opening and analysis of the B sample d. All of the above       
12 What is the requirement for laboratories that analyze blood or urine samples for doping control? 54.24 62.00 58.01 66.30 58.09 66.40
  a. The laboratory must be based in the country where the doping control took place c. The laboratory must be based in the athlete’s country       
  b. Any laboratory may analyze samples d. The laboratory must be accredited by WADA       
  1. Note. Each correct answer is described in italic. % Correct is the correct answer rate for each question item of ALPHA. (n %) is Percentage of correct answers to the total number of athletes