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Table 5 ALPHA scores by competition duration and highest competitive level (individual and team)

From: Impact of anti-doping education and doping control experience on anti-doping knowledge in Japanese university athletes: a cross-sectional study

Category Classification Mean SD Median χ2 df p η2 Multiple comparison
Competition Duration (years) 1–5 7.89 2.32 8.00 2.038 2 0.361 0.002 n.s
6–10 7.74 2.30 8.00
≥11 7.64 2.28 8.00
Individual Competition Level District 7.93 2.27 8.00 9.283 3 0.026 0.008 District > National
(p = 0.020,
η2 = 0.007)
International > National
(p = 0.030,
η2 = 0.009)
Prefectural 7.83 2.31 8.00
National 7.52 2.31 8.00
International 8.39 2.21 9.00
Affiliated Team Competion Level District 7.90 2.31 8.00 7.795 3 0.050 0.006 n.s.
Prefectural 7.90 2.25 8.00
National 7.58 2.31 8.00
International 8.08 2.36 9.00
  1. Note. ALPHA scores compared between competition duration, individual competition level, and affiliated team competition level using Kruskal-Wallis test for analyzing, and subsequent multiple comparisons were calculated using Mann Whitney U test. η2 is effect size (small = .10, medium = .30, large = .50)