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Table 3 Adjusted multivariate model of factors associated with use of mood modulating prescription drugs

From: Pharmacological neuroenhancement and the ability to recover from stress – a representative cross-sectional survey among the German population

Variables step 1a step 6a
Coeff. (SE) OR (95% CI) p VIF Coeff. (SE) OR (95% CI) p R 2b
BRS −.43 (.18) .65 (.46–.93) .02 2.02 −.48 (.14) .62 (.47–.81) <.001 .36
PSS-4 −.12 (.18) .88 (.63–1.25) .48 1.77
SOP-2 −.09 (.17) .91 (.65–1.28) .60 1.70
ASKU .04 (.20) 1.04 (.71–1.52) .84 1.72
IE-I .09 (.18) 1.09 (.77–1.55) .63 1.63
IE-E .27 (.18) 1.31 (.92–1.86) .14 1.60
Sex:
 Male Reference 1.15 Reference
 Female −.31 (.29) .73 (.42–1.29) .28  
Age .54 (.20) 1.72 (1.16–2.55) .01 1.11 .53 (.20) 1.70 (1.15–2.50) .01
Education:
 No formal degree Reference 1.11 Reference
 Secondary modern school −.73 (1.45) .48 (.028–8.29) .61  
 Middle school −.17 (.35) .84 (.42–.1.69) .63  
 University-entrance diploma −.16 (.42) .85 (.38–1.93) .70  
 University degree −.17 (.45) .84 (.35–2.02) .70  
Current or last professional position:
 Skilled worker Reference 1.05 Reference
 Executive employee .12 (.57) 1.13 (.37–3.44) .83  
 Non-executive employee .46 (.46) 1.58 (.64–3.92) .32  
 Civil servants −.33 (.77) .72 (.16–.3.24) .67  
 Self-employed .78 (.64) 2.17 (.62–7.63) .23  
 Other .13 (.57) 1.14 (.37–3.46) .82  
Place of residence:
 North Rhine-Westphalia Reference 1.07 Reference
 Hamburg .55 (.78) 1.73 (.37–7.98) .48  
 Lower Saxony .09 (.50) 1.09 (.41–2.90) .85  
 Bremen .47 (1.77) 1.60 (.05–51.41) .79  
 Schleswig Holstein .27 (.71) 1.32 (.33–5.24) .70  
 Hesse −.24 (.56) .78 (.26–2.35) .78  
 Rhineland-Palatine .30 (.68) 1.35 (.36–5.07) .66  
 Baden-Wuerttemberg .16 (.43) 1.17 (.50–2.75) .71  
 Bavaria −.13 (.43) .88 (.38–2.03) .77  
 Saarland −.1.73 (1.49) .18 (.01–3.30) .25  
 Berlin −.56 (.78) .57 (.12–2.63) .47  
 Brandenburg 1.18 (.76) 3.24 (.71–14.81) .13  
 Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania n. a. n. a. n. a. n. a.
 Saxony −1.07 (.77) .35 (.08–1.56) .17  
 Saxony-Anhalt −1.25 (.89) .29 (.05–1.65) .16  
 Thuringia −2.69 (1.34) .07 (.005–.94) .05  
Soft enhancer intake:
 No Reference 1.06 Reference
 Yes 2.29 (.35) 9.89 (5.02–19.51) <.001   2.25 (.34) 9.49 (4.86–18.52) .62
  1. Logistic regression with backward elimination of factors associated with use of mood modulating prescription drugs (users n = 114; non-users = 686). First step and final step. n.a. = no data available
  2. aStep 1 (full model) and step 6 (reduced model) in multivariate logistic regression using backward variable selection. Predictors were z-standardized before being included in regression analysis. Sociodemographic variables significant in the analyses of mean differences (sex, age, education, current or last professional position, size place of residence, soft enhancer intake) were included as a block in multivariate backward logistic regression. Results are weighted according to the distribution of the general population in Germany as reported by the German office of national statistics. bNagelkerkes R2 in step 6 of stepwise backward selection; Coeff. standardised regression coefficient, SE standard error, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, p p value, VIF variance inflation factor (based on multivariate linear regression), BRS Brief Resilience Scale, PSS-4 Perceived Stress Scale, SOP-2 Optimism-Pessimism-2 Scale, ASKU Short Scale for Measuring General Self-efficacy Beliefs, IE-I Short Scale for the Assessment of Locus of Control, internal control beliefs; IE-E: Short Scale for the Assessment of Locus of Control, external control beliefs